NCERT Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 - The Story of Village Palampur

Chapter 1 - The Story of Village Palampur

Question 1: How are traditional seeds different from HYV seeds?
Answer:

• Traditional seeds
→ It produces less output per hectare.
→ It needs less irrigation.
→ It needs inputs which are easily available with the farmer and they don’t need to buy it from market.
• HYV seeds
→ It produces more output per hectare.
→ It needs more irrigation.
→ It needs modern inputs like fertilisers and pesticides.

Question 2: Explain the term physical capital. Mention its different types with example.
Answer:
Physical capital is the capital that is further used in the production of more goods such as tools, equipment, machines and raw materials.
The two types of physical capital are:
• Fixed capital: It is that capital which can be used over and over again. This capital lasts for a longer time. Example: Machines and tools
• Working capital: It consists of those goods that are used up in the process of production. Example: Raw material and money

Question 3: Give 3 reasons why small farmers have to arrange capital by borrowing.
Answer:
The 3 reasons why small farmers have to arrange capital by borrowing are:
• To buy seeds and water for irrigation.
• To pay back the loan with the high rate of interest.
• To use the money for marriage and festival.

Question 4: What is meant by Green Revolution? Mention five features.
Answer:
The introduction of HYV seeds and the increased use of chemical fertilisers and irrigation collectively done to increase farm production is known as Green Revolution.
Features of Green Revolution:
• It was started in late 1960s in the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Western Uttar Pradesh.
• Use of HYV seeds which promised to produce more of crops on a single piece of land.
• Use of advanced technology, chemical fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, and well developed system of irrigation.
• It solved a food crisis in India and made India self-sufficient in food grain production.
• It lead to higher income growth rate and reduced poverty.

Question 5: The Green Revolution is associated with the loss of soil fertility. In the light of the statement mention five problems caused by modern farming.
Answer:
The problems caused by modern farming are:
• It is associated with the loss of soil fertility due to excessive use of chemical fertilizers.
• Continuous use of ground water for tube-well irrigation has reduced the water table below ground level.
• Pesticides and insecticides pollute surface water as well as air.
• Chemical fertilisers kill some necessary bacteria as well such as nitrogen fixing bacteria that add up to the soil fertility.
• It has adverse effect on environment as well as natural environment. Thus creating pollution of soil and water due to excessive use of fertilisers.

Question 6: What is meant by factors of production? Explain with example.
Answer:
Every production is organised by combining land, labour, physical capital and human capital which are known as factors of production. There are four factors of production:
• Land: The first requirement is land and other natural resources like water, forest, minerals etc.
• Labour: The seconds requirement is labour that is the people who will do the work - both manual and mental. Example: Clerks, workers etc.
• Physical capital: The third requirement is physical capital that is the variety of inputs required at every stage during production. There are two types of physical capital - Fixed and Working capital. Example: Machine, money etc.
• Human capital: The fourth requirement is human capital that is the stock of the skill and productive knowledge embodied in humans. They are the ones who organise the other three capitals for the production of goods and services. They are also known as entrepreneurs.

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