Gul Mohar Class 7 English Grammar - Reported Speech

Reported Speech

The art of reporting the words of a speaker is called narration. The mode of narration is of 2 types.
1. Direct Speech
2. Indirect Speech

• Direct Speech : The actual words of speaker. The exact words of the speaker are enclosed in inverted commas or quotation marks and is called quote. The verb used outside the quotation mark is called the reporting verb.
There is always a comma after the reporting verb.
Example:  He said, “I am going to School”.

• Indirect Speech : The actual words of the speaker are changed, because they have been spoken by the speaker in the past, hence narrating it in the present will require change in the tense. The words of the speaker are not enclosed in inverted commas or quotation marks.

The word ‘that’ is used before the spoken words of the speaker.
Example: He said that he was going to School.

Different Types of Sentences
When you use reported speech, you either report...

1. Statements: Assertive Sentence
Example: She is a doctor.
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.

2. Questions: Interrogative Sentence
Example: Where do you live?

3. Requests/Command: Imperative Sentence
Example : Be quiet
Please maintain silence

4. Strong feelings: Exclamatory sentences
Example: How cold the night is!

Steps to change Direct Speech to Indirect Speech
1. Identifying Subject and object
Example:  Lata said to John, “Roy is a good friend of mine”.
Here, speaker(doer of the action)
Lata is a subject,  
Listener, (receiver of action)
John is the object.

2. Change of reporting verb
Example: Manuj said, “ I study hard”.
When both speaker (Manuj) and listener (Sanjay) are present then the direct speech is stated as follows
Example: Manuj said to Sanjay, “I study hard”.

Said → said
Said to → told
Say to → tell
Says to → tells

3. Replace inverted comma with ‘that’
Example: Mary said, “She ate the pie”
Mary said that she ate the pie.

4. Identifying Personal persons -1st person, 2nd person and 3rd person and change of pronouns.

 

Subjective case

Objective case

Possessive case

1st Person

I
We

Me
Us

My
Mine
Our
Ours

2nd Person

You

You

Your
Yours

3rd Person

He
She
It
They

Him
Her
It
Them

His
Her
Its
Their
Theirs


1st person changes to 3rd person.
2nd person changes to 1st person or 3rd person.

S                                      O                                      N
                          1st person changes             2nd person changes        3rd person no change
                          according to the                  according to the
                          subject                                object

5. Update time and place

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Here

There

This

That

These

Those

Today

That day

Tomorrow

The next day

Yesterday

The previous day

Ago

Before

Now

Then

Tonight

That night

Next week

Following week

Next month

Following month


6. Change of tense
a) Simple present → Simple past
Example: He said, “ I do not like computers”.
                 He said that he did not like computers.

b) Present continuous tense ➝ Past continuous tense.
Example: He said, “ It is raining heavily”.
                 He said that it was raining heavily.

c) Present perfect tense ➝ Past  perfect
Example: He said, “He has finished his homework”.
                 He said that he had finished his homework.

d) Present perfect continuous ➝ Past perfect continuous
Example: He said, “ I have been studying since 3’0clock”.
                 He said that he had been studying since 3’0clock.

e) Simple past ➝ Past perfect
Example: My teacher said to me, “ You answered correctly”.
                 My teacher told me that I had answered correctly.
 
f) Past continuous ➝ Past perfect continuous
Example: They said, “ We were enjoying the weather”.
                 They said that they had been enjoying the weather.

g) Past perfect ➝ No Change
Example: He said, “I had started a business”.
                 He said that he had started a business.

h) Future tense
Will - would / will be - would be / will have - would have
Can - could
May - might
Must - had to

Example: He said, “I will read the story book”.
                 He said that he would read the story book.


No comments:

Post a Comment

Also read!

Class 6 Solutions

• Class 7

Class 7 Computer Kips Solutions
Class 7 Gul Mohar English Solutions
English Grammar Class 7
English Writing Skills Class 7
Class 7 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 7 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 7 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT History Solutions
Class 7 NCERT History Notes
Class 7 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Science Notes
Class 7 NCERT Science Extra Questions

• Class 8

Class 8 Kips Artificial Intelligence Solutions
Class 8 Gul Mohar English Solutions
English Grammar Class 8
English Writing Skills Class 8
Class 8 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 8 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 8 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT History Solutions
Class 8 NCERT History Notes
Class 8 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Science Notes
Class 8 NCERT Science Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Science Exemplar
Class 8 NCERT Science MCQs

Class 9 Solutions

• Class 10

Class 10 Kips Artificial Intelligence Solutions
Class 10 NCERT English Solutions
→ Class 10 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 10 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 10 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT History Solutions
→ Class 10 NCERT History Notes
Class 10 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Science Notes
Class 10 NCERT Science Extra Questions

• Computer languages
Python Basics

• Extra Activities
Extra Activities

• Extra Knowledge
Extra Information
General Knowledge
Historical Places in India
Latest technology
Physical Sciences
Facts

• Mathematics quick links
Mathematical Terms
Maths Tricks

CONTACT US