NCERT Class 7 Civics Chapter 9 - A Shirt in a Market

Chapter 9 - A Shirt in a Market

Question and Answers
Question 1:
Who is involved in the putting-out system? How is this system advantageous and disadvantageous for the weavers?
Answer:
The persons involved in the putting-out system are weavers and merchants.
This system is advantageous for the weavers in two ways:
(a) They do not have to spend their money on the purchase of yam.
(b) They are also free from the tension of selling the finished cloth.

This system is disadvantageous for the weavers in these ways:
(a)They have to depend on the merchants for raw materials as well as markets.
(b)Under this system, the merchants become very powerful. They give orders for what is to be made and they pay a very low price for making the cloth.
(c)The weavers have no way of knowing who they are making the cloth for or at what price it will be sold.

Question 2: How do weaver's cooperatives reduce the dependence of weavers on the cloth merchants?
Answer:
In a cooperative people with common interests come together and work for their mutual benefit. In a weaver's cooperative, the weavers form a group and take up certain activities collectively. They get yarn from the yarn dealer and distribute it among the weavers. The cooperative also does the marketing. In this way, the role of the merchants is reduced and weavers get a fair price on the cloth that they produce by dint of their hard labour.

Question 3: How does market work move in favour of the rich and powerful? What are the ways to overcome them?
Answer:
It is usually the rich and the powerful who earn the maximum profits in the market. These people have money and they own the factories, the large shops, large landholdings, etc. The poor have to depend on the rich and the powerful for various things. They have to depend on loans, for raw materials and marketing of their goods and most often for employment.
This dependence makes the poor miserable. They are easily exploited in the market. They get low wages in spite of their hard labor and the rich earn huge profits at the cost of the workers. There are ways to overcome these such as forming cooperatives of producers and ensuring that laws are followed strictly.

Question 4: In what ways are weavers dependent on cloth merchants?
Answer:
Weavers are dependent on cloth merchants for raw materials and markets.

Question 5: How do the garment exporters meet the conditions set by the foreign buyers?
Answer:
The garment exporters cut costs. They get maximum work out of the workers at the lowest possible wages.

Question 6: What are the demands foreign buyers make on the garment exporters?
Answer:

*They demand the lowest prices from the garment exporters.
*They set high standards for quality of production and timely delivery. Any defects or delays in delivery in dealt with strictly.
*The garment exporters agree to these demands because they are able to gain maximum profits even after that.

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