NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 7 - Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities

Chapter 7 Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities

Question and Answers
Question 1: What kinds of exchanges took place between nomadic pastoralists and settled agriculturists?
Answer:
Nomadic pastoralists moved over long distances with their animals and lived on milk and other pastoral products. They exchanged wool, ghee, etc., with settled agriculturists for grain, cloth, utensils and other products.
 
Question 2: How was the administration of the Ahom state organised?
Answer:
In 1662, the Mughals under Mir Jumla attacked the Ahom kingdom and despite their brave defence, the Ahoms were defeated. The Ahom state depended upon forced labour and those forced to work for the state were called ‘Paiks’. Each village had to send a number of paiks by rotation and people from heavily populated areas were shifted to less populated places, thus breaking up the Ahom clan. During the first half of the seventeenth century, the administration became quite centralized and almost all adult males served in the army during war. They were engaged in building dams, irrigation systems and other public works and also introduced new methods of rice cultivation. The Ahom society was divided into clans or khels. A Khel often controlled several villages. The peasant was given land by his village community and even the king could not take it away without the community’s consent.
 
Question 3: What changes took place in varna-based society?
Answer:
The following changes took place in the varna-based society:
1. The four-fold Varna society was based on the idea of Purity of birth. Therefore, the ones belonging to the lowest Varna, i.e., the Shudras were discriminated on the account of their birth and occupation.
2. Movement from one varna to another was very rigid as it was based on birth.
3. Smaller castes or jatis emerged within varnas.
4. On the other hand, many tribes and social groups were taken into caste-based society and given the status of jatis.
5. Specialized artisans such as smiths, carpenters, and masons were also recognized as separate jatis by the Brahmanas.
6. Jatis rather than varna became the basis for organizing society.
7. Among the Kshatriyas, new Rajput clans became powerful.
8. Many tribes became part of the caste system. But only the leading tribal families could join the ruling class. A large majority joined the lower jatis of caste society.
9. Many dominant tribes of Punjab, Sind and the North-West Frontier had adopted Islam. They continued to reject the caste-system
 
Question 4: How did tribal societies change after being organised into a state?
Answer:
The rise of the Rajput clans to the position of rulers had set an example for the tribal people to follow. With the support of the Brahmanas, many tribes became part of the caste system. But only the leading tribal families were allowed to join the ruling class. A large majority joined the lower jatis of caste society. Originally, some of the tribes such as the Ahoms worshipped their own tribal gods. During the first half of the seventeenth century, however, the influence of Brahmanas increased. During the reign of Sib Singh (1714-1744), Hinduism became the predominant religion although the Ahom kings did not completely give up their traditional beliefs after adopting Hinduism. Varna-based society and tribal people constantly interacted with each other. This interaction caused both kinds of societies to adapt and change and many different tribes took up diverse livelihoods. Over a period of time, many of them merged with caste-based society. Others rejected both the caste system and orthodox Hinduism. Some tribes established extensive states with well-organised systems of administration and became politically powerful. As a result, this brought them into conflict with larger and more complex kingdoms and empires.
 
Question 5: Were the Banjaras important for the economy?
Answer:
The Banjaras were the most important trader nomads. The caravan of the banjaras was called tanda. Sultan Alauddin Khalji used the Banjaras to transport grain to the city markets. They carried grain on their bullocks from different areas and sold it in towns. They transported food grain for the Mughal army during military campaigns. They bought grains where it was cheaply available and carried it to places where it is dearer and later, again reloaded their oxen with anything that can be profitably sold in other places.
 
Question 6: In what ways was the history of the Gonds different from that of the Ahoms? Were there any similarities?
Answer:
The history of the Gonds was different from that of the Ahoms in the following ways:
Gonds lived in Gondwana while Ahoms lived in Brahmaputra valley. Gonds practiced shifting cultivation while Ahoms did not practice shifting cultivation. Gond kingdoms were large, Ahom kingdom was small. Gond kingdoms were divided into garhs, Ahoms built a large state. Gonds did not use fire-arms; Ahoms used fire-arms for the first time in the history of the subcontinent.

The similarity is that both were tribes:
The Mughals tried to control the lands of both at different point of time. There were changes in society of both due to the diversification of occupations.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Also read!

Class 6 Solutions

• Class 7

Class 7 Computer Kips Solutions
Class 7 Gul Mohar English Solutions
English Grammar Class 7
English Writing Skills Class 7
Class 7 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 7 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 7 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT History Solutions
Class 7 NCERT History Notes
Class 7 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Science Notes
Class 7 NCERT Science Extra Questions

• Class 8

Class 8 Kips Artificial Intelligence Solutions
Class 8 Gul Mohar English Solutions
English Grammar Class 8
English Writing Skills Class 8
Class 8 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 8 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 8 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT History Solutions
Class 8 NCERT History Notes
Class 8 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Science Notes
Class 8 NCERT Science Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Science Exemplar
Class 8 NCERT Science MCQs

Class 9 Solutions

• Class 10

Class 10 Kips Artificial Intelligence Solutions
Class 10 NCERT English Solutions
→ Class 10 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 10 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 10 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT History Solutions
→ Class 10 NCERT History Notes
Class 10 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Science Notes
Class 10 NCERT Science Extra Questions

• Computer languages
Python Basics

• Extra Activities
Extra Activities

• Extra Knowledge
Extra Information
General Knowledge
Historical Places in India
Latest technology
Physical Sciences
Facts

• Mathematics quick links
Mathematical Terms
Maths Tricks

CONTACT US