Gul Mohar Class 7 English Grammar - Preposition

Preposition

Definition of Preposition
A preposition is a word that is placed before a noun or a pronoun and establishes the positional relation with other words in the sentence.
Example:
1. He is sitting on a chair.
2. The ball went across the boundary,

Types of Preposition:
a) Simple Preposition
b) Complex preposition

Simple Preposition: It is made up of only one word. It is of the following types.

Prepositions of time: They are used to help indicate when something happened, happens or will happen - in, on, at, ago, before, since, for, by, to, within, during, after, till, until etc.

Ago - It is used when talking about something in the past that is considered in relation to the present. It is used with the past tense and always includes an expression of time (minutes, hours, months etc.)
Example: He went five minutes ago.

Before - It is used to show the order of the two or more events that has taken place one after another,
Example:
1. I came here before you.
2. The minister resigned before the tenure.

Since - It is used with specific date and time.
Example: I have been waiting here since 9’o clock.

For - It is used to indicate period of time.
Example: I was sick for 3 days

By - If something happens by a particular time, it happens at or before that time.
Example: By eight o'clock he had arrived at my hotel.

Within - inside a period of time/ before the end of a period of time
Example: We expect an announcement within the next 24 hours.

During - It is used with known periods of time./periods which have already been defined.
Example: She was asleep during the lesson.

Till - means upto
Example: Please wait till I return

After - when a particular event or time has happened,
Example:
1. Do you believe in life after death?
2. My birthday falls in January.
3. My vacation ends on Monday.
4. It gets cold at night.

In and On
In the morning/in the afternoon/in the evening
But
On Friday morning/On Sunday afternoon/On Monday evening

In

On

At

Month/Year/Centuries/long period

Day/Dates

Specific time/precise

In June

On Monday

At 6.30 am

In Winter

On Sundays

At noon

In 2020

On 5 th May

At dinner time

In the last century

On 6th June, 2020

At bed time

In the past

On Diwali

At the moment

In the future

On My birthday

At midnight

Prepositions of position
It indicate where something is or where something happens (across, in, inside, on, outside, under, behind, beside, between, above, against, among, around, below, beneath, by, over, and near.

Across - from one side to the other of (a place, area, etc.).
Example: The newly built bridge across the river has just collapsed.

Against - next to /touching.
Example: There is a table against the wall.

Among - in the middle of or surrounded by many
Example: I could not find a good book among my old books.

Around - Surrounding
Example: He put his arms around her.

Above - at a higher level
Example: The temperature was above normal.

Behind - At the back of
Example: He left the shoes behind the door.

Below - in a lower level
Example: He always writes below the lines.

Beneath - touching the lower surface./hidden
Example: I found my pen beneath the pile of books.

Beside - next to
Example: She always sits beside him in the office.

Between - to refer to two things which are clearly separated.
Example: It’s a challenge between you and me.

By - at the side of
Example: I love to live in a house by the sea.

Over - from one side to the other
Example: The thief jumped over the wall

Under - position below or lower than /below 3D object
Example: The children are hiding under the table.

On - The books are on the table.

In -
His alarm clock went off twice and he is still snoring in bed.

Inside -
There was something like a snake or a rope inside the dark cage.

Outside - I fell asleep while waiting outside the clinic for my turn.

Near - Please don’t come near me; I have a bad cold.

Preposition of Place

In

On

At

Bigger place/enclosed

surface

For a point

In Delhi

On the floor/on a list

At the bus stop

In the room/in a line/a row

On the roof/on the menu/

At the door

In the garden/in a queue

On the wall/on the map

At the entrance

In a building/in a street

On the road/on the left side

At the cross roads

In the car

On the 3rd floor

At home

In the taxi

On the bus/train/a plane/ship/horse/bicycle/motorbike

 

Prepositions of direction/Movement indicate that something is headed for or directed to somewhere. Prepositions of direction include prepositions such as into,  onto, through, to, toward.

From - Point of place
Example: Ravi came from London.

Along - moving in a constant direction on (a more or less horizontal surface)
Example: The cars were parked along the road.

Into - movement inward  
Example: We jumped into the river.

Through - from one end to the other.
Example: We walked through the caves.

Off - away from
Example: She fell off from bicycle.

Towards - in the direction of
Example: The snake slithered toward the bullfrog.
                  He went up the hill
                  Don’t fall down the stairs.
To - To show the change in place.
Example:
1. Mahi goes to school.
2. Maninder went to Shimla.

To show time.
1. It is five minutes to nine.
2. It is just a day to Sunday.

By - agent or doer of action
Example: The farmer was killed by a robber.

With - an instrument
Example: He was killed with a dagger.

Complex preposition: It is made up of more than one word and function together as a preposition.
1. According to - Everything has gone well according to the plan.

2. Contrary to - Contrary to public opinion , snakes are excellent pets.

3. Due to - He was absent due to ill-health.

4. Thanks to - We achieved great success, thanks to our teachers.

5. In case of - In case of fire please call 101

6. In spite of - He has come up in life in spite of many odds.

7. Together with - The managers, together with the workers went on a strike.

8. Except for - The food was great, except for the price.

9. Far from - Our hotel is far from the beach.

10. In addition to - The children are eating ice-cream in addition to sweets.

11. Ahead of - The  boy ahead of Kareem is Tom.

12. As well as - The white tigers as well as mountain lions are found in this forest.

13. In front of - Jim parked his car, in front of my house.

14. Next to - Jack sat next to his friend.

15. With respect to - With respect to our progress, the committee is impressed.

16. In between - Water seeped in between the tiny cracks of the roof.

17. A long with - along with his words came some strange sounds.

18. A part from - Apart from the mosquitoes, the house was good.

19. Because of - The cricket match was cancelled because of bad lighting.

20. Instead of - You can take tea instead of coffee.

21. Owing to -The picnic has been cancelled owing to heavy rain.

22. Such as - You need identification such as ID card.

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