NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Resources and Development

Chapter 1 Resources and Development

Question and Answer
Question 1: Define ‘Resource’.
Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as a ‘Resource’.

Question 2: How are nature, technology and institution interdependent on each other?
The process of transformation of things available in our environment involves an inter-dependent relationship between nature, technology and institutions. Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development.
For example, Iron ore, manganese, limestone etc. are extracted from the earth’s crust by human beings to make iron and steel which in turn is used to manufacture machines, vehicles etc.

Question 3: Distinguish between biotic and abiotic resources. Give examples.

Biotic resources

Abiotic resources

These are obtained from biosphere and have life.

All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources.

Ex: Human beings, plants, animals etc.

Ex: Rocks, metals etc.

Question 4: Describe the type of resources classified on the basis of exhaustibility.
On the basis of exhaustibility resources are classified as follows:
1. Renewable Resources: The resources that can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical process are known as renewable resources. Ex: Forest, wildlife etc.
2. Non-renewable Resources: The resources which take millions of years in their formation and occur over a very long geological time are known as non-renewable resources. Ex: Minerals and fossil fuels.

Question 5: How are resources classified on the basis of ownership?
On the basis of ownership resources are classified as follows:
1. Individual resources: Resources owned by private individuals are known as individual resources. Ex: Plots, fields etc.
2. Community owned resources: Resources which are accessible to all the members of the community are known as community resources. Ex: Playgrounds, public parks etc.
3. National resources: All resources such as minerals, water, forests etc. within the political boundaries and oceanic area upto 12 nautical miles belong to the nation. The country has legal power to acquire private resources for public good. Ex: Roads and railways can be constructed on fields/lands owned by some individuals.
4. International resources: The oceanic resources beyond 200 kms. of the Exclusive Economic Zone comes under this category. These are regulated by international institutions. Any country can utilize these resources with the concurrence of the international institutions. Ex: India has got the right to mine Manganese nodules from the bed of the Indian Ocean.

Question 6: Explain the classification of resources on the basis of the status of development.
On the basis of the status of development, resources are classified as follows:
1. Potential resources: Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilized due to lack of capital or other reasons. Ex: Rajasthan & Gujarat have enormous potential to develop wind & solar energy, but so far, they have not been developed properly.
2. Developed resources: Resources which are surveyed and their quantity and quality has been determined for utilization. The development of resources depends on technology and the level of their feasibility. Ex: coal.
3. Stock: Materials which have the potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the technology to access these. Ex: Water which is a compound of two inflammable gases – Hydrogen and oxygen can be a rich source of energy.  But we do not have the required technical know-how to use them for this purpose.
4. Reserve: These are a subset of stock.  They can put into use with the existing technology but their use has not been started. Ex: The water in the dams, forests etc.

Question 7: “Indiscriminate usage of resources has led to major problems.” Explain.
Indiscriminate usage of resources has led to the following major problems:
1. Depletion of resources (for satisfying the greed of few individuals)
2. Accumulation of resources in few hands, which in turn leads to division of society into two segments, rich and poor.
3. Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, land degradation and environmental pollution.

Question 8: Define sustainable development.
Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generation.

Question 9: “India has enormous diversity in the availability of resources.” Explain. / “Resources are unevenly distributed in India.” Justify the statement by giving examples. / “There are some regions, in India, which are self-sufficient in resources and there are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources.” Justify the statement by giving examples.

1. India has regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources.
2. States like Jharkhand, Chattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.
3. Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.
4. The state of Rajasthan is very well endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.
5. The cold desert of Ladakh is relatively isolated from the rest of the country. It has very rich cultural heritage but it is deficient in water, infrastructure and some vital minerals.

Question 10: What are the three stages of resource planning in India?
Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country (through surveying and mapping)
1. Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional setup for implementing resource development plans.
2. Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

Question 11: Why is resource planning essential?
Resources are vital for any developmental activity.
1. But irrational consumption and over utilization of resources may lead to the depletion of resources, socio-economic and environmental problems.
2. To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various levels is very important.

Question 12: “Land is a natural resource of utmost importance.” Justify the statement.

1. We live on land and perform many economic activities on land.
2. Ninety-five percent of our basic needs for food, shelter and clothing are obtained from the land.
3. It supports natural vegetation, wild life and human life.
4. It supports transportation and communication systems.
5. Hence, land is a natural resource of utmost importance.

Question 13: “India has land under a variety of relief features.” Explain the statement.
India has land under a variety of relief features, namely; plains, plateaus, mountains and islands.
1. Plains: About 43% of the land area is plain, which provides facilities for agriculture and industry.
2. Plateaus: About 27% of the area of the country is the plateau region. It possesses rich reserves of minerals, fossil fuels and forests.
3. Mountains: Mountains account for 30% of the total surface area of the country and ensure perennial flow of some rivers, provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.

Question 14: Mention the factors on which the land use pattern of India depends upon.
The use of land is determined by physical as well as human factors.
1. Physical factors: Topography, climate and soil types
2. Human factors: Population density, technological capability, culture and traditions.

Question 15: Write briefly about the utilization of land resources.
Land resources are used for the following purposes:
1. Forests

2. Land not available for cultivation:
• Barren and waste land
• Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories etc.

3. Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)
• Permanent pastures and grazing land
• Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves
• Culturable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years)

4. Fallow lands:
• Current fallow (left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year)
• Other than current fallow (left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years)

5. Net sown area
Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.

Question 16: What led to land degradation?
Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it has resulted in land degradation.

Question 17: How are human activities responsible for land degradation?

1. Mining: After the excavation work is completed the mining sites are abandoned leaving deep scars and traces of over burdening.
In states of Madhya Pradesh and Odisha deforestation due to mining caused severe land degradation.

2. Overgrazing: In states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation.

3. Over Irrigation: In Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh, over irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.

4. Mineral Processing: The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land.

5. Industrial Effluents: The harmful effluents released directly by various industries without any treatment causes land degradation.

6. Deforestation: Cutting down of trees in large numbers has led to land degradation in states of Chattisgarh, Odisha etc.

Question 18: State the measures that should be taken to conserve land.

1. Afforestation and proper management of grazing
2. Planting of shelter belts of plants
3. Control on over grazing
4. Stabilisation of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes
5. Proper management of waste lands
6. Control of mining activities
7. Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment

Question 19: What is the importance of soil? What are the major factors which are responsible for the formation of soil?
Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.

1. Relief, parent rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
2. Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, action of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc. contribute to the formation of soil.
3. Chemical and organic changes which take place in soil are equally important.

Question 20: Mention the characteristics of alluvial soils / What type of soil is found in the river deltas/valleys? Give four main features of this type of soil. / Which is the most widely spread and important soils of India? State the characteristics of this type of soil.
Alluvial soils are formed due to the deposition of sediments brought down by rivers such as Ganga, Godavari, Krishna etc.
These soils contain various proportions of sand, silt and clay.
These soils are very fertile.
These soils contain potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are suitable for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat, pulses etc.
Due to its high fertility, regions of alluvial soils are densely populated.

Question 21: Distinguish between Khadar and Bhangar.



New alluvial soil is called khadar.

Old alluvial soil is called Bhangar.

These soils are more fertile.

These soils are less fertile.

Has lower concentration of kankar nodules.

Has higher concentration of kankar nodules.

Question 22 Enumerate the features of “regur” soil. / Mention the characteristics of black soil. / Which soil is ideal for growing cotton? How is this soil formed?

1. Black soil is called “regur” soil.
2. These soils have been formed due to the withering of igneous rocks.
3. These soils are made up of extremely fine clayey material.
4. These soils are rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
5. These soils develop cracks in hot weather and become sticky when wet.
6. These soils are ideal for growing cotton, hence they are called black cotton soils.
States: Gujarat, Maharashtra etc.

Question 23: Give a brief account of Red and Yellow soils.

1. Red and Yellow soils develop on crystalline igneous rocks in area of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
2. These soils are found in parts of Orissa and Chattisgarh.
3. These soils develop a reddish colour due to the diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
4. These soils look yellow when they are in hydrated form.

Question 24: Write short notes on laterite soils.

1. The laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall.
2. Humus content is low in this soil.
3. It is mainly found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Assam etc.
4. This soil can be used for growing tea, coffee, cashew nuts etc. with adequate doses of manures and fertilizers.

Question 25: Where are the arid soils found? What are their main features?
1. Arid soils are found in Western Rajasthan.
2. They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
3. These soils lack humus and moisture.

Question 26: What are the main feature of the forest soils?
1. The forest soils are found in the hilly and mountainous area.
2. They are loamy and silty in the valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes.
3. In the snow-covered areas of Himalayas, these soils are acidic with low humus content, but in the lower parts of the valleys, these soils are fertile.

Question 27: What is soil erosion? What are the human activities responsible for soil erosion? What are the natural forces which cause soil erosion?
The denudation of the soil covers and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion.
1. Human activities responsible for soil erosion:
• Deforestation
• Over grazing
• Construction and mining
• Defective methods of farming etc.

2. Natural forces/agents that cause soil erosion:
• Wind
• Glaciers
• Water

Question 28: What steps/measures should be taken to control soil erosion?
Steps/measures that can be taken/should be taken to control soil erosion/for soil conservation are as follows:
1. Contour ploughing: Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes.
2. Terrace farming/cultivation: Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces and growing crops on the terraces. For example: Practiced in western and central Himalayas.
3. Strip cropping: Large fields can be divided into strips.  Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind.
4. Shelter belts: Planting trees in rows to reduce the velocity of the wind.  This method helped in the stabilization of sand dunes in the Thar desert.
5. Mulching: This will slow down the absorption of water to reduce runoff.

Question 29: Define the following:
(a) Gully erosion
Running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels, making it unfit for cultivation. This is known as gully erosion. These type of lands in Chambal basin are called ravines.

(b) Sheet erosion:
When water flows as a sheet over large areas, down a slope, it carries the top soil away. This is known as sheet erosion.

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