NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 - Agriculture

Chapter 4 Agriculture

Question and Answer
Question 1: Explain the features of primitive subsistence agriculture in India.
Primitive subsistence agriculture is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
1. It is practiced on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks and family/community labour.
2. This type of farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility and other environmental conditions suitable to the crops grown.
3. It is known by different names in our country such as Jhumming – Assam, Bewar – Madhya Pradesh, Podu – Andhra Pradesh.

Question 2: What is intensive subsistence farming? What are its features?
Intensive subsistence farming is practiced in areas of high population pressure on land.
1. It is a labour-intensive farming.
2. High dose of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for higher production.

Question 3: What are the characteristics of commercial farming?
Commercial farming is practiced on large farms.
1. In commercial farming high doses of modern inputs – HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticide and pesticides are used in order to obtain higher productivity.
2. Crops are grown mainly for sale in the market.
3. The degree of commercialization of agriculture varies from one region to other. For example, rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in Odisha it is a subsistence crop.

Question 4: Define plantation agriculture. What are the main features/characteristics of plantation agriculture?
Plantation is the type of commercial farming.
1. In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area.
2. It is capital intensive and done with migrant labourers.
3. All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries. Eg: tea, coffee, sugarcane etc.

Question 5: What are the cropping seasons in India? Name the crops grown in these cropping seasons.
India has three cropping seasons:
1. Rabi season (winter season)
Crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June.
Some of the important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, grams etc.

2. Kharif season (rainy season)
Crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and these are harvested in September – October.
Important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra etc.

3. Zaid season (summer season)
The short season during the summer months, in between the rabi and kharif seasons, is known as the Zaid season.
Some of the crops produced during this season are watermelon, cucumber, muskmelon etc.

Question 6: Describe the geographical and climatic conditions required for the growth of:
(a) rice
Rice, a kharif crop, is grown in the coastal areas and the deltaic regions.
It requires high temperature (above 25oc) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cms.
In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation.
Major rice producing states: Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal.

(b) wheat
Wheat, a Rabi crop, is grown in the Ganga-Saltuj plains in the north-west and black soil region of the Deccan.
This crop requires a cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening (around 15oc).
It requires 50 to 75 cms of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season.
Major wheat producing states are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh.

Question 7: What geographical conditions are required for cultivation of sugarcane? Name two largest sugarcane producing states.
Sugarcane is a tropical as well as a sub-tropical crop.
1. It grows well in hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21oc to 27oc.
2. It requires an annual rainfall between 75 cms to 100 cms
3. It can be grown on a variety of soils.
4. Two largest sugarcane producing states – Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh.

Question 8: Name the main oil seeds produced in India? What are they used for?
Main oil seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, sesamum, castor seeds, sunflower etc.
1. Most of the oil seeds are edible and used as cooking mediums.
2. Some of these are also used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetic and ointments.

Question 9: Name one beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth. / Explain the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of tea. Name two states in India where tea grows.
Tea, an important beverage crop, was introduced in India initially by the British.
1. It grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
2. Tea bushes require warm and moist free climate throughout the year.
3. It requires frequent showers evenly distributed over the year.
4. Major tea producing states are Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala.

Question 10: Explain rubber cultivation in India under the following:
(a) Geographical conditions    (b) Importance    (c) Major rubber producing state
Rubber is an equatorial crop, but also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas.
1. It requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cms and temperature above 25oc.
2. It is an important industrial raw material.  
3. Major rubber producing states are Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka.

Question 11: Give a brief account of the geographical and climatic conditions required for the growth of fibre crops – cotton & Jute. Name the states where the fibre crops are grown on a large scale. / Name the leading producers of fibre crops.

1. Cotton:
• Cotton grows well in the black soil of the Deccan Plateau.
• It requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
• Major cotton producing states – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh etc.

2. Jute:
• Jute, known as the golden fibre, grows well on well drained fertile soil in the flood plains.
• It requires high temperature during growth.
• It is used in making gunny bags, ropes, mats etc.
• Major jute producing states are West Bengal, Bihar Assam etc.

Question 12: Mention the problems that Indian agriculture faces.
Sustained use of land without compatible techno institutional changes have hindered the pace of agricultural development.
1. Most of the farmers in India still depend upon monsoon and natural fertility to carry on their agriculture, resulting in lesser yield.
2. Small land holdings, illiteracy and ignorance of farmers, lack of proper storage and transportation facilities etc. are some more problems.

Question 13: Explain any five institutional and technical reforms brought by the government to improve the condition of Indian agriculture. / Describe any five steps taken by the government of India to increase the productivity of agriculture in India.
The right of inheritance has led to fragmentation of land holdings. Thus, collectivization, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of Zamindari etc. were given priority to bring institutional reforms.
1. The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution were some of the strategies initiated to improve the lot of Indian agriculture.
2. Provision of crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone etc. establishment of Grameen Banks, Co-operative societies and banks for providing loans at low rates of interest to the farmers.
3. Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers on radio and T.V.  
4. The government also announces minimum support price (MSP) for important crops to check exploitation.
5. Issue of Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) etc.
6. The government provides HYV seeds and fertilizers at subsidized prices.

Question 14: What is the importance of agriculture in the Indian economy? / Why is agriculture called the mainstay of the Indian Economy?
Agriculture is providing livelihood and employment to around 64% of the population.
1. Agriculture is a primary activity which not only produces food that people consume, but also produces raw material for various industries and fodder to country’s vast livestock.
2. India earns foreign exchange by exporting agricultural products.

Question 15: Suggest the initiatives taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
The government of India made efforts to modernize agriculture.
1. Establishment of India council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural university, veterinary science and animal breeding centers, horticulture development, research and development in the fields of meteorology and weather forecast etc. were priority for improving Indian agriculture.
2. Improving the rural infrastructure.

Question 16: List out the problems faced by the Indian farmers.
The farmers in India are facing a big challenge from international competition due to the reduction of public investment in agriculture sector particularly, irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanisation.
1. Decrease in subsidy on fertilizers led to increase in the cost of production.
2. Reduction in import duties on agricultural products.

Question 17: Suggest some ways and means to overcome the problems of farmers.
Distribution of assured quality seeds.
1. Expanding irrigation facilities.
2. Diversifying cropping patterns from cereals to high value crops will increase income and reduce environmental degradation simultaneously.
3. Providing loans at low rates of interest to buy the inputs required for agricultural activities.
4. Providing technical assistance and training to farmers.
5. Regulation to markets.

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