NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 7 - Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Notes

Chapter 7 - Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Notes

1. The day-to-day condition of the atmosphere at a place with respect to the temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, etc., is called the weather at that place.

2. The temperature, humidity and other factors are called elements of the weather.

3. To record the maximum and minimum temperatures during day, there are special thermometers, called maximum and minimum thermometers.

4. The maximum temperature of the day occurs generally in the afternoon while the minimum occurs in the early morning.

5. The average weather pattern takes over a long time is called the climate of the place.

6. Mean temperature for a given month is found by first finding the average of the temperatures recorded during the month then calculating the average of such average temperatures over many years.

7. The annual record of long-term average temperature and rainfall at a particular place is called climate chart.

8. The tropical and the polar regions are the two regions of the earth, which have severe climatic conditions.

9. Animals are adapted to survive in the conditions in which they live.

10. Animals in the polar region are adapted to the extremely cold climate by having some special characteristics such as strong sense of smell, a layer of fat under the skin, white fur, wide and large paws for walking and swimming.

11. Some adaptations of animals living in tropical rainforests include living on the trees, development of strong tails, long and large beaks, sensitive hearing, sharp eyesight, ability to camouflage, etc.

12. The weather reports are prepared by the Meteorological Department of the Government. This department collects data on temperature, wind, etc., and makes the weather prediction.

13. Rainfall is measured by an instrument called the rain gauge. It is basically a measuring cylinder with a funnel on top to collect rainwater.

14. All changes in the weather are caused by the sun. The sun is a huge sphere of hot gases at a very high temperature. The distance of the sun from us is very large. Even then the energy sent out by the sun is so huge that it is the source of all heat and light on the earth. So, the sun is the primary source of energy that causes changes in the weather. Energy absorbed and reflected by the earth’s surface, oceans and the atmosphere play important roles in determining the weather at any place.

15. Some migratory birds travel as much as 15000 km to escape the extreme climatic conditions at home. Generally they fly high where the wind flow is helpful and the cold conditions allow them to disperse the heat generated by their flight muscles. It seems that these birds have a built-in sense of direction and know in which direction to travel. Some birds probably use landmarks to guide them. Many birds may be guided by the sun during the day and stars at night. There is some evidence that birds may use the magnetic field of the earth to find direction. And it is not only birds that migrate; mammals, many types of fish and insects are also known to migrate seasonally in search of more hospitable climates.

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