NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 3 - The Delhi Sultans Notes

Chapter 3 - The Delhi Sultans Notes

1. Delhi became an important city only in the 12th Century.

2. Delhi first became the capital of a kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs, who were defeated in the middle of the 12th century by the Chauhans of Ajmer.

3. Under the Tomaras and Chauhans Delhi became an important commercial centre.

4. Many rich Jaina merchants lived in the city and constructed several temples.

5. Coins minted here, called dehliwal and had a wide circulation.

6. In the beginning of the 13th century, Delhi Sultanate was founded.

7. The Delhi Sultans built many cities in the area.

8. Inscriptions, coins and architecture provide a lot of information, especially valuable are histories, tarikh/tawarikh, written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.

9. The authors of tawarikh were learned men. They lived in cities mainly in Delhi, they often wrote in hope of rich rewards.

10. These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve in ‘ideal’ social order based on birthright and gender distinctions. Their ideas were not shared by everybody.

11. In 1236, Sultan Iltutmish’s daughter, Raziyya, became Sultan. She was removed from the throne in 1240.

12. Minhaj-i-Siraj recognized that she was more able and qualified than all her brothers. But he was not comfortable at having a queen as ruler. Nor were the nobles happy at her attempts to rule independently.

13. Rudramadevi was queen of Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal from 1262 to 1289. Rudramadevi changed her name on her inscriptions and pretended she was a man.

14. Queen Didda, ruled in Kashmir between 980-1003. The name comes from “didi” or “elder sister”.

15. In the first expansion, forests were cleared (internal frontier) in the Ganga-Yamuna doab and hunter-gatherers and pastoralists expelled from their habitat. These lands were given to peasants and agriculture was encouraged. New fortresses, garrison towns and towns were established to protect trade routes and to promote regional trade.

16. The second expansion occurred along the “external frontier” of the Sultanate. Military expeditions into southern India, started during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and culminated with Muhammad Tughluq Sultanate armies captured elephants, horses and slaves and carried away precious metals.

17. By the end of Muhammad Tughluq’s reign, the armies of the Delhi Sultanate had marched across a large part of the subcontinent. They had defeated rival armies and seized cities.

18. The Sultanate collected taxes from the peasantry and dispensed justice in its realm.

19. A mosque is called a masjid in Arabic. Mosque is a place where Muslims prostrates in reverence to Allah. In a “congregational mosque” (masjid-i-jami or jama masjid) Muslims read their prayers together.

20. Members of the congregation choose the most respected, learned male as their leader (imam) for the rituals of prayer. He also delivers the sermon (lecture) which is called khutba during the Friday prayer. During prayer, Muslims stand facing Mecca. In India this to the west. This is called the ‘qibla’.

21. Quwwat al-Islam mosque built in Delhi during the last decade of the 12th century. This was the first mosque built by the Delhi Sultans. This was enlarged by Iltutmish and Alauddin Khalji.

22. Begumpuri mosque, built in the reign of Muhammad Tughluq, was the main mosque of Jahanpanah, the “Sanctuary of the World”.

23. Moth ki Masjid, built in the reign of Sikandar Lodi by his minister.

24. Mosque of Jamali Kamali, was built in the late 1520.

25. The Delhi Sultans built several mosques in cities all over the subcontinent. These demonstrated their claims to be protectors of Islam and Muslims. Mosques also helped to create the sense of a community of believers who shared a belief system and a code of conduct. It was necessary to reinforce this idea of a community because Muslims came from a variety of backgrounds.

26. The consolidation of Delhi Sultanate needed reliable governors and administrators. Iltutmish favoured their special slaves purchased for military service, called ‘bandagan’ in Persian. They were carefully trained to became most important political offices in the kingdom. They were totally dependent upon their master, the Sultan could trust and rely upon them. The Khaljis and Tughluqs continued to use ‘bandagan’.

27. Someone who is under the protection of another is called ‘Clients’. They were often raised to high political positions. They were appointed as generals and governors.

28. Sultan Muhammad Tughluq appointed a wine distiller, a barber, a cook and two gardeners to high administrative posts.

29. Ziauddin Barani (1285-1357) was a Muslim political thinker of the Delhi Sultanate during Muhammad bin Tughluq and Firuz Shah’s reign.

30. The Khalji and Tughluq monarchs appointed military commanders as governors of territories. Lands were called iqta and their holder was called ‘iqtadar’ or ‘muqti’. The duty of the muqtis was to lead military campaigns and maintain law and order in their iqtas. The muqtis collected the revenues of their assignments as salary. They paid their soldiers from these revenues.

31. The Sultan’s administrators measured the land and kept careful accounts. Some of the old chieftains and landlords served the Sultanate as revenue collectors and assessors.

32. Accountants were appointed by the state to check the amount of revenue collected by the muqtis. Care was taken that the muqti collected only the taxes prescribed by the state and that he kept the required number of soldiers. There were three types of taxes:
• on cultivation called ‘kharaj’ and amounting to about 50% of the peasant’s produce
• on cattle
• on houses.

33. Ibn Battuta was a traveller from Morocco, Africa who visited in 14th century.

34. Mongols, Genghis Khan attacked on the Delhi Sultanate increased during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and in the early years of Muhammad Tughluq’s rule.

35. Sher Shah Suri (1540-1545) started his career as the manager of small territory for his uncle in Bihar and eventually challenged and defeated the Mughal emperor Humayun. Sher Shah captured Delhi and established his own dynasty.

36. Although the Suri dynasty ruled for only 15 years (1540-1555), it introduced an administration that borrowed elements from Alauddin Khalji and made them more efficient. Sher Shah’s administration became the model followed by the great emperor Akbar when he consolidated the Mughal Empire.

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