NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 - Manufacturing Industries

Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

Question and Answer
Question 1: Define manufacturing.
Production in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.

Question 2: What is the importance of manufacturing sector?

• Manufacturing sector helps in modernizing agriculture.
• Helps in reducing the heavy dependency of people on agricultural sector by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sector.
• Eradicates unemployment and poverty.
• Brings down regional disparities.
• Brings foreign exchange (through export of goods).
• Increases the economic growth and economic development of a country.

Question 3: “Agriculture and industry are not exclusive of each other. They move hand in hand.” Support the statement with three arguments.

• Agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising their productivity.
• Agro-industries depend on agriculture for their raw materials. Eg. Sugar, cotton, jute etc.
• Industries sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilizers, insecticides, machines, etc to farmers which have made the production processes very efficient.

Question 4: What factors effect industrial location?

• Industrial location depends on availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market.
• It is rarely possible to find all these factors available at one place.
• Consequently, manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost.

Question 5: “Industrialization and urbanization go hand in hand.” Justify the statement by giving any three arguments.
After an industrial activity starts, urbanization follows:
• Sometimes, industries are located in or near the cities.
• Cities provide markets and also provide services such as banking, insurance, transport etc. to the industry.

Question 6: What are agglomeration economies?
Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.

Question 7: How are industries classified?
Industries are classified as follows:
→ On the basis of raw material used:
• Agro-based industry: cotton, jute, silk, sugar, tea etc.
• Mineral based industry: iron and steel, cement, aluminium etc.

→ According to their role:
• Basic or key industries: These industries supply their products/raw materials to manufacture other goods. Eg. Iron and steel and copper smelting.
• Consumer industries: These industries produce for direct use by consumers. Eg. Sugar, paper, fans etc.

→ On the basis of capital investment:
• Small scale industry: It the capital investment is up to 1 crore rupees the industry is called as a small-scale industry.
• Large scale industry: If the capital investment is more than 1 crore rupees the industry is called as a large-scale industry.

→ On the basis of ownership:
• Public sector industries: These industries are owned and operated by government agencies. Eg. BHEL, SAIL etc.
• Private sector industries: These industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. Eg. TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd.
• Joint sector industries; These industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of industries. Eg. Oil India Ltd.
• Cooperative sector industries: These industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Eg. Sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala.

Question 8: Why is it said that the cotton textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy?

• The textile industry contributes to about 14% to industrial production.
• It provides jobs to around 35 million people.
• Is earns about 24.6% of foreign exchange.
• It contributes about 4% towards GDP.
• It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value-added products.

Question 9: Explain any three factors which were responsible for the concentration of cotton textile industry in Maharashtra and Gujarat in early years.

• Availability of raw cotton.
• Ready markets, both in India and abroad.
• Well-developed means of transportation.
• Abundant skilled and unskilled labour at cheap rate.
• Moist climate which is suitable for cotton industry.

Question 10: How does the cotton textile industry occupy a unique position in the Indian economy? Explain.

• The cotton textile industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, sewing etc.
• The industry by creating demands supports many other industries such as chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.
• Provides employment opportunities, thus helps in reduction of poverty.

Question 11: Mention the problems faced by the cotton textile industry in India.

• Weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use high quality yarn produced in the country. Hence, it is exported.
• Fabric is imported by garment/apparel industry.
• Erratic power supply.
• Use of outdated machinery.
• Low output of labour.
• Stiff competition from the synthetic fibre industry.
• Insufficient domestic production, hence imports are essential to meet the demand.

Question 12: Explain the factors responsible for localization of jute textile mills along the banks of Hugli river.

• Proximity of the jute producing areas such as West Bengal, Odisha and Assam.
• Inexpensive water support, supported by a good network of railways, waterways and roadways.
• Abundant water for processing raw jute.
• Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha and Utter Pradesh.
• Kolkata, a large urban centre, provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.

Question 13: What are the challenges faced by the jute textile industry?

• Stiff competition in the international market from synthetics and substitutes.
• Competition from other countries like Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt etc.
• Usage of old technology results in high cost of production and high price of the final goods. Thus, the demand for the jute goods has declined.
• The industry has failed to diversify.

Question 14: Mention the various steps taken up by the government to boost the production of jute goods/to solve the problems faced by the jute industry. / Write briefly about the National Jute Policy 2005.
In 2005, the National Jute Policy was formulated with the objective of:
• Increasing productivity
• Improvement in quality
• Ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing the yield per hectare
• Making it mandatory to use jute for packaging

Question 15: Why is there a tendency for the sugar mills to concentrate in the southern and western states especially in Maharashtra?

• Sugarcane produced in the southern and western states of India has a higher sucrose content.
• Favourable climate ensures a longer crushing season (6-7 months instead of 4 months).
• Higher yield.
• Co-operatives are more successful in these states.

Question 16: What are the major challenges faced by the sugar industry in India?

• Seasonal nature of industry.
• Old and inefficient methods of production.
• Transport delay in reaching the cane to factories.
• Need to maximize the use of baggase.

Question 17: Why is the iron and steel industry called basic and heavy industry?

• The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all other industries depend on it for their machinery.
• Steel is required to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, scientific equipment, consumer goods etc.
• The iron and steel industry is a heavy industry because all the raw materials as well as the finished goods are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs.

Question 18: How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants?

• Integrated steel plant: It is large and handles everything under one roof – putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
• Mini Steel Plant: It is smaller, has electric furnaces, uses steel scrap. Sponge iron and steel ingots to produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.

Question 19: Why has Chhotanagpur region maximum concentration of iron and steel industries?
• Raw material: availability of raw materials including iron ore, manganese, coking coal and limestone.
• Labour: High population density ensures/facilitates availability of cheap skilled and unskilled labourers.
• Transport: Good connectivity – roads, rail links and sea port (Kolkata).
• Power supply: Damodar valley corporation provides power to these plants.
• Market: Vast growth potential in the home market.

Question 20: Mention the problems faced by the iron and steel industry? / why is India not able to perform to her full potential in iron and steel production?

• High costs and limited availability of coking coal.
• Lower productivity of labour.
• Irregular supply of energy.
• Poor infrastructure.

Question 21: What are the recent developments that have led to a rise in the production capacity?

• Liberalization and Foreign Direct Investment
• Efforts of private entrepreneurs
• Allocation of resources for research and development for updating technology
• All these have contributed to increased production capacity.

Question 22: “Production and consumption of iron and steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development.” Examine the statement.

• The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all other industries – heavy, medium and light depend on it for their machinery
• Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.
• In today’s era of globalization, consumption of goods is increasing which leads to increased production which in turn generates more employment opportunities.
• Thus, it can be concluded that growth in production and consumption of iron and steel is regarded as the index of the country’s development.

Question 23: What is the importance of automobile industry? Examine the impact of liberalization on automobile industry in India.

• Automobile industry provides vehicles such as trucks, buses, cars etc. for quick transport of goods, services and passengers.
• The coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market.
• Healthy growth of market.
• Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments.

Question 24: Explain / analyze the significance of information technology industry in India.

• IT industry has provided employment to over one million people out of which 30% are women.
• This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner because of its fast growing BPO sector.
• The continuing growth of hardware as well as software is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.

Question 25:How do industries pollute the environment? Suggest some methods to reduce the environmental pollution caused by industries.
Industries are responsible for four types of pollution – air, water, land and noise.
→ Causes of air pollution:
• Air pollution is caused by gases like Sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide.
• Dust, sprays, mist and smoke emitted by chemical and paper factories, refineries, burning of fossil fuels are pollutants.
• Adversely affects human, animal and plant life.

→ Methods to control air pollution:
• Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
• Smoke can be reduced by using oil/gas instead of coal in factories.

→ Causes of water pollution:
• Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers.
• Paper and textile industries, petroleum refineries etc. let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals kike lead and mercury, plastics and rubber into the water bodies.
• Fly ash, phospo-gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes dumped into the water bodies.

→ Methods to control water pollution:
• Water should be reused and recycled to maximize its use.
• Rain water should be harvested to meet water requirements.
• Hot water and effluents should be treated through mechanical, biological and physical processes before releasing in rivers and ponds.
• Overdrawing of ground water where there is a threat to ground water resources also needs to be regulated legally.

→ Causes of land pollution:
• Land pollution is caused due to the dumping of wastes especially glass, harmful chemical, industrial effluents, salts, garbage etc.
• It causes cancers, birth defects and miscarriages etc.

→ Methods to control land polllution:
• Proper treatment of liquid as well as solid wastes before releasing on to the land.

→ Causes of noise pollution:
• Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws, electric drills etc. cause noise pollution.
• Noise pollution results in irritation and anger, stress, may lead to increased heart rate, BP and hearing impairment.

→ Methods to control noise pollution:
• Machinery and generators should be fitted with silencers.
• Machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
• Use of earplugs and earphones.


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