NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 - Manufacturing Industries

Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

Question and Answer
Question 1: Define manufacturing.
Answer:
Production in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.

Question 2: What is the importance of manufacturing sector?
Answer:

• Manufacturing sector helps in modernizing agriculture.
• Helps in reducing the heavy dependency of people on agricultural sector by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sector.
• Eradicates unemployment and poverty.
• Brings down regional disparities.
• Brings foreign exchange (through export of goods).
• Increases the economic growth and economic development of a country.

Question 3: “Agriculture and industry are not exclusive of each other. They move hand in hand.” Support the statement with three arguments.
Answer:

• Agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising their productivity.
• Agro-industries depend on agriculture for their raw materials. Eg. Sugar, cotton, jute etc.
• Industries sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilizers, insecticides, machines, etc to farmers which have made the production processes very efficient.

Question 4: What factors effect industrial location?
Answer:

• Industrial location depends on availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market.
• It is rarely possible to find all these factors available at one place.
• Consequently, manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost.

Question 5: “Industrialization and urbanization go hand in hand.” Justify the statement by giving any three arguments.
Answer:
After an industrial activity starts, urbanization follows:
• Sometimes, industries are located in or near the cities.
• Cities provide markets and also provide services such as banking, insurance, transport etc. to the industry.

Question 6: What are agglomeration economies?
Answer:
Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.

Question 7: How are industries classified?
Answer:
Industries are classified as follows:
→ On the basis of raw material used:
• Agro-based industry: cotton, jute, silk, sugar, tea etc.
• Mineral based industry: iron and steel, cement, aluminium etc.

→ According to their role:
• Basic or key industries: These industries supply their products/raw materials to manufacture other goods. Eg. Iron and steel and copper smelting.
• Consumer industries: These industries produce for direct use by consumers. Eg. Sugar, paper, fans etc.

→ On the basis of capital investment:
• Small scale industry: It the capital investment is up to 1 crore rupees the industry is called as a small-scale industry.
• Large scale industry: If the capital investment is more than 1 crore rupees the industry is called as a large-scale industry.

→ On the basis of ownership:
• Public sector industries: These industries are owned and operated by government agencies. Eg. BHEL, SAIL etc.
• Private sector industries: These industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. Eg. TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd.
• Joint sector industries; These industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of industries. Eg. Oil India Ltd.
• Cooperative sector industries: These industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Eg. Sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala.

Question 8: Why is it said that the cotton textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy?
Answer:

• The textile industry contributes to about 14% to industrial production.
• It provides jobs to around 35 million people.
• Is earns about 24.6% of foreign exchange.
• It contributes about 4% towards GDP.
• It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value-added products.

Question 9: Explain any three factors which were responsible for the concentration of cotton textile industry in Maharashtra and Gujarat in early years.
Answer:

• Availability of raw cotton.
• Ready markets, both in India and abroad.
• Well-developed means of transportation.
• Abundant skilled and unskilled labour at cheap rate.
• Moist climate which is suitable for cotton industry.

Question 10: How does the cotton textile industry occupy a unique position in the Indian economy? Explain.
Answer:

• The cotton textile industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, sewing etc.
• The industry by creating demands supports many other industries such as chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.
• Provides employment opportunities, thus helps in reduction of poverty.

Question 11: Mention the problems faced by the cotton textile industry in India.
Answer:

• Weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use high quality yarn produced in the country. Hence, it is exported.
• Fabric is imported by garment/apparel industry.
• Erratic power supply.
• Use of outdated machinery.
• Low output of labour.
• Stiff competition from the synthetic fibre industry.
• Insufficient domestic production, hence imports are essential to meet the demand.

Question 12: Explain the factors responsible for localization of jute textile mills along the banks of Hugli river.
Answer:

• Proximity of the jute producing areas such as West Bengal, Odisha and Assam.
• Inexpensive water support, supported by a good network of railways, waterways and roadways.
• Abundant water for processing raw jute.
• Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha and Utter Pradesh.
• Kolkata, a large urban centre, provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.

Question 13: What are the challenges faced by the jute textile industry?
Answer:

• Stiff competition in the international market from synthetics and substitutes.
• Competition from other countries like Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt etc.
• Usage of old technology results in high cost of production and high price of the final goods. Thus, the demand for the jute goods has declined.
• The industry has failed to diversify.

Question 14: Mention the various steps taken up by the government to boost the production of jute goods/to solve the problems faced by the jute industry. / Write briefly about the National Jute Policy 2005.
Answer:
In 2005, the National Jute Policy was formulated with the objective of:
• Increasing productivity
• Improvement in quality
• Ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing the yield per hectare
• Making it mandatory to use jute for packaging

Question 15: Why is there a tendency for the sugar mills to concentrate in the southern and western states especially in Maharashtra?
Answer:

• Sugarcane produced in the southern and western states of India has a higher sucrose content.
• Favourable climate ensures a longer crushing season (6-7 months instead of 4 months).
• Higher yield.
• Co-operatives are more successful in these states.

Question 16: What are the major challenges faced by the sugar industry in India?
Answer:

• Seasonal nature of industry.
• Old and inefficient methods of production.
• Transport delay in reaching the cane to factories.
• Need to maximize the use of baggase.

Question 17: Why is the iron and steel industry called basic and heavy industry?
Answer:

• The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all other industries depend on it for their machinery.
• Steel is required to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, scientific equipment, consumer goods etc.
• The iron and steel industry is a heavy industry because all the raw materials as well as the finished goods are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs.

Question 18: How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants?
Answer:

• Integrated steel plant: It is large and handles everything under one roof – putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
• Mini Steel Plant: It is smaller, has electric furnaces, uses steel scrap. Sponge iron and steel ingots to produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.

Question 19: Why has Chhotanagpur region maximum concentration of iron and steel industries?
Answer:
• Raw material: availability of raw materials including iron ore, manganese, coking coal and limestone.
• Labour: High population density ensures/facilitates availability of cheap skilled and unskilled labourers.
• Transport: Good connectivity – roads, rail links and sea port (Kolkata).
• Power supply: Damodar valley corporation provides power to these plants.
• Market: Vast growth potential in the home market.

Question 20: Mention the problems faced by the iron and steel industry? / why is India not able to perform to her full potential in iron and steel production?
Answer:

• High costs and limited availability of coking coal.
• Lower productivity of labour.
• Irregular supply of energy.
• Poor infrastructure.

Question 21: What are the recent developments that have led to a rise in the production capacity?
Answer:

• Liberalization and Foreign Direct Investment
• Efforts of private entrepreneurs
• Allocation of resources for research and development for updating technology
• All these have contributed to increased production capacity.

Question 22: “Production and consumption of iron and steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development.” Examine the statement.
Answer:

• The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all other industries – heavy, medium and light depend on it for their machinery
• Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.
• In today’s era of globalization, consumption of goods is increasing which leads to increased production which in turn generates more employment opportunities.
• Thus, it can be concluded that growth in production and consumption of iron and steel is regarded as the index of the country’s development.

Question 23: What is the importance of automobile industry? Examine the impact of liberalization on automobile industry in India.
Answer:

• Automobile industry provides vehicles such as trucks, buses, cars etc. for quick transport of goods, services and passengers.
• The coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market.
• Healthy growth of market.
• Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments.

Question 24: Explain / analyze the significance of information technology industry in India.
Answer:

• IT industry has provided employment to over one million people out of which 30% are women.
• This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner because of its fast growing BPO sector.
• The continuing growth of hardware as well as software is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.

Question 25:How do industries pollute the environment? Suggest some methods to reduce the environmental pollution caused by industries.
Answer:
Industries are responsible for four types of pollution – air, water, land and noise.
→ Causes of air pollution:
• Air pollution is caused by gases like Sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide.
• Dust, sprays, mist and smoke emitted by chemical and paper factories, refineries, burning of fossil fuels are pollutants.
• Adversely affects human, animal and plant life.

→ Methods to control air pollution:
• Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
• Smoke can be reduced by using oil/gas instead of coal in factories.

→ Causes of water pollution:
• Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers.
• Paper and textile industries, petroleum refineries etc. let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals kike lead and mercury, plastics and rubber into the water bodies.
• Fly ash, phospo-gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes dumped into the water bodies.

→ Methods to control water pollution:
• Water should be reused and recycled to maximize its use.
• Rain water should be harvested to meet water requirements.
• Hot water and effluents should be treated through mechanical, biological and physical processes before releasing in rivers and ponds.
• Overdrawing of ground water where there is a threat to ground water resources also needs to be regulated legally.

→ Causes of land pollution:
• Land pollution is caused due to the dumping of wastes especially glass, harmful chemical, industrial effluents, salts, garbage etc.
• It causes cancers, birth defects and miscarriages etc.

→ Methods to control land polllution:
• Proper treatment of liquid as well as solid wastes before releasing on to the land.

→ Causes of noise pollution:
• Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws, electric drills etc. cause noise pollution.
• Noise pollution results in irritation and anger, stress, may lead to increased heart rate, BP and hearing impairment.

→ Methods to control noise pollution:
• Machinery and generators should be fitted with silencers.
• Machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
• Use of earplugs and earphones.

2 comments:

  1. Replies
    1. Oh bhaiya! Me apni website me bahut sare animal species ke baare me bahut sikha hai par tune jo apni species batai hai voh maine aaj tak nahin pada. Keep updating me about your other species with your photo... Eagerly waiting for your response...

      Delete

Also read!

Class 6 Solutions

• Class 7

Class 7 Computer Kips Solutions
Class 7 Gul Mohar English Solutions
English Grammar Class 7
English Writing Skills Class 7
Class 7 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 7 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 7 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT History Solutions
Class 7 NCERT History Notes
Class 7 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Science Notes
Class 7 NCERT Science Extra Questions

• Class 8

Class 8 Kips Artificial Intelligence Solutions
Class 8 Gul Mohar English Solutions
English Grammar Class 8
English Writing Skills Class 8
Class 8 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 8 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 8 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT History Solutions
Class 8 NCERT History Notes
Class 8 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Science Notes
Class 8 NCERT Science Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Science Exemplar
Class 8 NCERT Science MCQs

Class 9 Solutions

• Class 10

Class 10 Kips Artificial Intelligence Solutions
Class 10 NCERT English Solutions
→ Class 10 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 10 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 10 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT History Solutions
→ Class 10 NCERT History Notes
Class 10 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Science Notes
Class 10 NCERT Science Extra Questions

• Computer languages
Python Basics

• Extra Activities
Extra Activities

• Extra Knowledge
Extra Information
General Knowledge
Historical Places in India
Latest technology
Physical Sciences
Facts

• Mathematics quick links
Mathematical Terms
Maths Tricks

CONTACT US