NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 1 - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Question and Answer
Question 1: What is a nation-state? How did nation-states emerge?
A nation-state is one in which the majority of its citizens, and not only the rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent.
This commonness did not exist from time immemorial, it was forged through struggles, through the actions of leaders and the common people.

Question 2: What were the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people?

• The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
• A new French flag, the tri colour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
• Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
• A centralized administrative system was put in place.
• Uniform laws for all citizens.
• Uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
• French, as was spoken and written in Paris became the common language of the nation.

Question 3: Describe any five reform measures introduced by Napoleon to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him. / Describe about the Civil Code of 1804 / Napoleonic Code of 1804.

• Napoleon did away with all privileges based on birth.
• Established equality before the law.
• Secured the right to property.
• Simplified administrative divisions.
• Abolished the feudal system.
• Removed guild restrictions.
• Improved transport and communication systems.
• Introduced standard weights and measures and a common national currency which facilitated the movement and exchange of goods and capital.

Question 4: Why was Napoleonic rule over other regions unpopular? / “In the areas conquered by Napoleon, the reactions of the local populations to French rule was mixed.” Give reasons.

• Administrative reforms did not go hand in hand with political freedom
• Increased taxation
• Censorship
• Forced conscription into the French armies

Question 5: “The Habsburg empire was a patchwork of many different regions and peoples in Europe.” Discuss.

• The Habsburg empire ruled over Austria-Hungary.
• It included the Alpine region, Bohemia, Venetia and Lombardy, Hungary etc.
• The people living in this empire spoke different languages like German, Italian, Magyar, Polish etc.
• The people living in this empire belonged to different ethnic groups such as Bohemians, Slovaks, Slovenes, Croats, Roumans etc.
• The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.

Question 6: Explain the social composition of the mid 18th century Europe. / “Socially and politically a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent.” Explain.

• The landed aristocracy (powerful yet small in number) owned estates in the countryside and also town houses.
• They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society.
• Their families were often connected by ties of marriage.
• The majority of the population was made up of peasantry.
• After industrial revolution, new social groups came into being: a working class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen and professionals.

Question 7: “Ideas of national unity in early 19th century was closely allied to the ideology of liberalism.” Explain the statement. / What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals in Europe?
The term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin root ‘liber’ meaning free.
• Social ideas: Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual, equality of all before the law and inviolability of private property.
• Political ideas: Liberalism emphasized the concept of government by consent, end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.
• Economic ideas: liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

Question 8: Mention any two economic obstacles that the liberal nationalist wanted to overcome. In what ways did the Zollverein or Customs Union of 1834 try to overcome these shortcomings?

• The two economic obstacles that the liberal nationalists wanted to overcome were:
→ Absence of freedom of markets.
→ State imposed restrictions on movement of goods and capital.

• Time consuming calculations resulting from differences in currency, weights and measurements in the thirty-nine German states.

• Ways in which the Zollverein or Customs Union of 1834 tried to overcome these shortcomings:
→ Zollverein which was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states
→ Abolished tariff barriers.
→ Reduced the number of currencies from thirty to two.
→ The creation of Zollverein and the creation of a network of railways stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interests to national unification.

Question 9: How did nationalism and the idea of nation-state emerge? Describe.

• Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions.
• They spoke French for the purpose of diplomacy and in high society.
• The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry.
• After Industrialization began, new social groups came into being: a working-class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals.
• It was among the educated liberal middle class that ideas of national unity and abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.
• Nations began to be perceived as having a definite territory, anthem and flag, together with a Parliament which was elected by property owning men of the middle class.

Question 10: Enumerate the features of the conservative regimes set up in Europe following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815.

• The conservatives believed in the preservation of traditional institutions of state and society - like monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property etc.
• They continued some of the changes initiated by Napoleon like modern army, efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, abolition of serfdom and feudalism, as they felt that these would strengthen traditional institutions like monarchy.
• They were autocratic, did not tolerate criticism and dissent and imposed censorship laws.

Question 11: Explain the provisions of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815.

• In 1815, representatives of Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.
• The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Matternich.
• The provisions of the Treaty of Vienna are as follows:
→ Bourbon dynasty was restored to power in France.
→ France lost territories annexed under Napoleon.
→ The kingdom of Netherlands which included Belgium was set up in North and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the South.
→ Prussia was given new territories on its Western Frontier.
→ Austria was given Northern Italy.
→ Russia was given part of Poland and Prussia was given a part of Saxony.

Question 12: What was the impact of the Treaty of Vienna (1815) on European people? Write any three points.
Answer: Representatives of the European power, Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed the Treaty of Vienna in 1815. The impacts of treaty were:
• Deposed Bourbon dynasty was restored o power. Future expansion of French was prevented.
• Prussia was given important new territories on its Western frontiers, while Austria was given control of Northern Italy.
• In the East, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion of Saxony.
• The treaty slowed down the growth of nationalism. There was an effort to restore Monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and to create a new conservative order in Europe.

Question 13: How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European States after 1815? Explain with an example.

• After 1815, many liberal nationalists went underground for the fear of repression.
• Secret societies were set up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.
• The members of these secret societies opposed monarchical forms, were in favour of liberty and freedom and creation of nation-states.
• Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian revolutionary founded two underground societies; first Young Italy in Marseilles and then Young Europe in Berne.
• Following the footsteps of Mazzini, with Louis Philippe as its head.
• An uprising was seen in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of Netherlands.

Question 15: How did culture play an important role in Europe in creating the idea of the nation?
Culture played an important role in creating the idea of a nation because of the following reasons:
• Art and poetry, stories, music helped in shaping nationalist feelings in Europe.
• Romanticism was a cultural movement which played a role in this context.
• Romantic poets and artists were critical of reason and science. They rather focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings.
• Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of the nation.
• Folk dance, folk poetry, folk songs were considered the true expression of the spirit of the nation.
• Speaking in the vernacular language was another expression of nationalism.

Question 16: How did Romanticism pave the way for Nationalism in Europe? Explain.
Romanticism, a cultural movement developed a particular form of nationalist sentiments in the following ways:
• Critical approach towards reason and science: Romantic artists criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused on emotions, intuitions and mystical feelings. They wanted to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past as the basis of a nation.
• Folk culture as the spirit of the nation: Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances, the true spirit of nation could be popularized. So, collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential for the project of nation building.
• Emphasis on vernacular language: They gave emphasis on vernacular language to recover the national spirit and to carry the modern nationalist message to large audience who were mostly illiterate. For example, Clergy in Poland began to use Polish language as a weapon of nationalist resistance against their Russian oppressors.

Question 17: Why were the years of 1830s of great hardship in Europe? Explain any five reasons.

• The first half of the 19th century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
• Job seekers were more and employment opportunities were less.
• People from rural areas migrated to cities and made cities over-crowed slums.
• Small producers often faced stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods.
• Peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
• The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.

Question 18: Explain the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

• The 1848 revolution was led by the educated middle class along with the poor, unemployed starving peasants and workers in many European countries for constitutionalism with national unification.
• Their demands were the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of press and freedom of association, abolition of serfdom and bonded labour and freedom of markets.
• A large number of women had participated actively and formed their own associations and struggled for the right to vote.
• Though conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, they could not restore the old order. Thus, serfdom and bonded labour were abolished.

Question 19: Explain any three features of the Frankfurt Parliament.

• In the German regions, a large number of political associations came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an All-German National Assembly.
• On May 18, 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul.
• They drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarch and subject to a Parliament.
• When the crown, on these terms, was offered to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, he rejected it, joined the other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly and ordered troops to disband the assembly.

Question 20: Examine the role of women in the nationalist struggles of Europe.

• A large number of women had participated in the liberal and nationalist movements of Europe.
• Women formed their own political associations.
• Founded newspapers and took part in political meetings and demonstrations.
• However, they were still denied the right to vote and they could not enter the Frankfurt Parliament as representatives but attended only as observers.

Question 21: Examine the main features of the process of German unification under the leadership of Otto Von Bismarck.

• After the failure of the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848, Prussia took over the leadership of the movement for German national unification.
• Its Chief Minister, Otto Von Bismarck was the architect of this process which was carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
• Bismarck fought three wars in seven years with Austria, Denmark and France which ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. On 18th January 1871, the Prussian king, William-I was proclaimed the German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.

Question 22: Explain the various stages of Italian unification.

• Giuseppe Mazzini formed a secret society named Young Italy for the unification of Italy. The revolutionary uprisings in 1831 and 1848 failed to achieve his objective.
• After the failure of revolutionary movement, the responsibility of unification lay on Victor Emmanuel II (ruler of Sardinia - Piedmont) who along with his Chief Minister Cavour, led the movement to unify the regions of Italy.
• Through an alliance with France, Sardinia – Piedmont was successful in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Thus, the north Italian states were brought under its control.
• The kings’ troops and armed volunteers (Red Shirts) under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi marched into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants and drove out the Spanish rulers.
• In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.

Question 23: Examine the conditions of Italy before unification.

• Italians were scattered over several dynastic states.
• During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states.
• Out of seven, only one Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian Princely House.
• The North was under Austrian Habsburgs.
• The centre was ruled by the Pope.
• Southern regions were under Bourbon Kings of Spain.
• Even there was no common form of Language.

Question 24: Explain the role of Giuseppe Mazzini in the unification of Italy.

• Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary.
• He became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari.
• He was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in 1831.
• He founded two secret societies - Young Italy and Young Europe.
• He believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So, Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations.
• He frightened conservatives through opposition of monarchy and vision of democratic republics.

Question 25: How has Britain come into existence? Explain.

• There was no British nation prior to the 18th century.
• The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones—such as the English, Welsh, Scot or the Irish.
• All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions.
• But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
• The Act of Union, 1707 between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and England was able to impose its influence on Scotland.
• After a failed revolt led by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen (1798), Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.

Question 26: How was Ireland incorporated in the United Kingdom of Great Britain?

• The country of Ireland was deeply divided between the Protestants and the Catholics.
• The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a large Catholic country.
• Catholic revolts against the British were suppressed.
• After a failed revolt led by Wolfe Tone and his united Irishmen in 1798, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.

Question 27: “While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, how does one go about giving a face to a nation”. Examine this statement in context of European nationalism in five points.

• Visualizing the nation:
Artists personified the nation – portrayed nation as a female figure.

• Marianne:
→ Marianne is the female allegory representing France.
→ Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolor, the cockade.
→ Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the national symbol of unity.
→ Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.

• Germania:
→ Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
→ She wears a crown of oak leaves, as in Germany oak stands for heroism.
→ The breastplate with eagle signifies symbol of the German empire – strength, sword – readiness to fight.

Question 28: What is meant by Balkan? Why did it turn into perennial source of tension and proved the battlefield of First World War? / Why did the Balkan region of Eastern Europe present the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe? Explain any five reasons.

• The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern day Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania etc. whose inhabitants were commonly known as Slavs.
• A large part of Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire, some other parts were under the control of Russia and Austria - causing a complex problem.
• The spread of ideas of Romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made the region very explosive.
• The Balkan people based their claim for independence or political rights on nationality and desired to win back their long lost freedom.
• The Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. Each power – Russia, Germany, England and Austria-Hungary- was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.

Question 29: How did the Greek War of Independence mobilized nationalist feeling amongst the educated elite across Europe? Give five points.

• Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the 15th century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821.
• Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathy for ancient Greek culture.
• Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilization and mobilized public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim Empire.
• The English poet Lord Bryon organized funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824.
• Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.

Question 30: Describe Frederic Sorrieu Utopian vision of the world as he depicted in his painting in 1848.

• Frederic Sorrieu 1848 paintings:
→ In his dream of a world made up of a Democratic and Social Republics, the people of Europe are marching in a long train and offering homage to the Statue of Liberty, a female figure with a torch of liberty in one hand and the charter of the Rights of Man in the other. On the earth in the foreground lie shattered remains of symbols of absolutist institutions as in his Utopian vision people of the world are grouped as distinct nations identified through their flag and national costumes. Leading the procession past the Statue of Liberty are USA and Switzerland. Already nation-states France has reached the statue followed by Germany, Austria, Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia. From the heavens above, Christ, Saints and Angels gaze upon the scene symbolizing fraternity among the nations of the world.

Question 31: Give a brief description of the revolt led by the Silesian weavers in 1845.

• In 1845 the Silesian weavers revolted against contractor who supplied them raw material for finishing textile but drastically reduced their payments.
• Dissatisfied and resented weavers emerged from their homes on 4th June and marched in pairs up to the mansion of their contractor demanding higher wages.
• The contractor fled with his family to a neighbouring village which ultimately refused shelter to such a person.

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