NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 16 - Sustainable management of Natural Resource Notes

Chapter 16 - Sustainable management of Natural Resource Notes

1. Natural resources are resources that exist in nature and are formed without any actions of human kind.

2. Sustainable management of natural resources is defined in the Environment Act as:
“Using natural resources in a way and at a rate that maintains and enhances the resilience of ecosystems and the benefits they provide.”

3. Some environmental issues are:
• Ozone depletion
• Greenhouse effect
• Acid rains
• Melting of glaciers
• Water pollution
• Population growth
• Waste production and accumulation of non-biodegradable wastes
• Genetic modification of crops
•  Loss of soil fertility due to over usage of chemicals

4. Some organizations for environmental protection
• Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate changes
• World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
• Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
• United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
• International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
• Environmental Foundation of India (EFI)
• Global Environmental Facility (GEP)

5. Ganga Action Plan
• It is a multi-crore programme launched in 1985.
• The Ganga Action Plan was launched by Shri Rajeev Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India.
• The objectives are to control non-point pollution from agricultural runoff, human defecation, cattle wallowing and throwing of unburnt & half burnt bodies into the river.
• The quality of Ganga was poor due to above reasons.
• Water quality is determined by presence of Coliforms.
• Coliforms are the bacteria found in human intestines. Their presence in water indicates the contamination by pathogens.
• Method used to quantify coliforms in water is MPN method [Most Probable Number].

5. pH is an indicator of water quality.
• pH is used as an indicator of water quality since pH can be affected by chemicals in water.
• рH is an important indicator of water that is changing chemically.

6. The 5 R's to save environment
• Refuse
• Reduce
• Reuse
• Repurpose
• Recycle

7. Why do we need to manage our resources?
• The resources are limited.
• With increasing population, demand for resources is also increasing.
• Sustainable management of resources ensures availability of resources to generations.
• Over exploitation of resources cause environmental damage.
• Conservation of nature and natural resources is an age old practice.

8. Forest and wildlife
• One of the aims of conservation is to preserve the biodiversity we have inherited.
• Forest are the biodiversity hotspots.
• The stakeholder related to conservation of forests include:
People living around forests
Forest department of the government
Industrialists
Wildlife and nature enthusiasts

9. Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award for wildlife conservation.
• In 1731 sacrificed here life along with 363 others for protection of Khejri trees in Khejrali village near Jodhpur of Rajasthan.
• Chipko Andolan (Hug the trees) - Reni village in Himalayas during the 1970s.

10. Mastermind behind Chipko Movement is Sunderlal Bahuguna.

11. Main problems that may arise due to building of big dams are:
• Social problems
• Economic problems
• Environmental problems

Solution to this problem:
• Adequate rehabilitation
• Compensation to displaced families
• Afforestation

12. Ancient water harvesting structures
• Ancient khadins, nadis and tanks in Rajasthan
• Bandharas and tals in Maharashtra
• Bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
• Ahars and pynes in Bihar
• Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh
• Ponds in Kandi Belt of Jammu
• Eris in Tamil Nadu
• Surangams in Kerala
• Kattas in Karnataka

13. Conservation of fossil fuels (Coal and Petroleum)
• They are formed by degradation of biomass millions of years ago.
• They may get exhausted if misused.
• Therefore, conservation of these resources by judicious usage is necessary.

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