NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 - Power-Sharing Notes

Chapter 1 - Power-Sharing Notes

1. Sharing of power by different people is known as power sharing

2. Why do we need to share power?
To make sure that the power doesn’t lie in one hand.

3. About Belgium
• Belgium is a small European country.
• Its population is just 1 crore.
• It has boundaries with France, Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
• Brussels is the capital city.

4. Ethnic composition of the Belgium
• Dutch → 59% → lives in Flemish region
• Germans → 1%
• French → 40% → lives in the Wallonia region

5. The French were rich and powerful. The Dutch were poor.
• This created discontent among the Dutch.
• Tension and conflicts started between the French and the Dutch.
• Conflicts were more in Brussels. There French were in majority.

6. Power sharing arrangement in Belgium
Belgium amended their Constitution 4 times and made the following arrangement:
• Equal number of ministers from both French and Dutch communities in the Central government.
• Some special laws need the support of majority of the members from each linguistic group.
• State governments are made autonomous and they got many powers.
• A separate government was set up at Brussels with equal number of ministers from both French and Dutch communities.
• Each community will elect its own separate community government. This government will look into cultural, education and language matters.

7. Advantages of power sharing arrangement in Belgium
• Avoided social conflicts
• Prevented social conflicts
• Prevented breaking up of the country
• Strengthened unity

8. Ethnic composition of Sri Lanka

9. Majoritarian measures in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka followed majoritarian policy. It is a policy of giving many privileges to majority community and discriminating against the minority.

• In 1956, an Act was passed to make Sinhala the only official language of Sri Lanka.
• Sinhala speakers are given preferences in government jobs and university positions.
• Buddhism was declared as the State religion and the government started taking steps to promote Buddhism.
• Tamils didn’t enjoy equal political rights and they were discriminated against.

10. Demands of Tamil
• Tamils demanded official language status for Tamil.
• They demanded equal educational and job opportunities for all citizens.
• They demanded autonomy to the Tamil majority areas.
• Later, they demanded a separate state called Elam
• Tamils formed their own political organisations and raised their demands. Later, some terrorist groups were formed. They started a war against the Government.

11. Effects of Civil War
• Several people were killed.
• Many were injured.
• Many had to go to other countries as refugees
• Properties were destroyed
• It affected Sri Lanka’s economic progress.
• War ended in 2009 with the defeat of LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam)

12. Power sharing is a system in which all the social and ethnic groups are given a role  a play in the administration of the country.

13. Reasons for power sharing:
i) Prudential reason for power reason:
• Power sharing helps to reduce conflicts between social groups.
• It establishes political stability and strengthens the unity of the country.
• It is good for the majority also because it provides them peace and security.

ii) Moral reasons for power sharing:
• Democracy means power sharing among the people.
• So power sharing is the spirit of democracy.
• All the social groups must get a share of power.

14. Forms of power sharing:
i) Power sharing among different organs of Government:
• In democratic countries power is shared between legislature, executive and judiciary.
• Each organ checks the other.
• There is a balance of power.
• This system is called the system of checks and balance or horizontal distribution of power.
• For example, the Bombay High Court ordered Maharastra government to take steps in order to improve the condition of street children.

ii) Power sharing among government at different levels:
• In a federal system, political power is shared between 2 sets of governments - one at the Centre and the other at the State.
• This is called vertical division of power. For example, in India the Constitution divides power among the Central, State and local government also.

iii) Power sharing among different social groups:
• Power is shared among different social groups such as the religious and linguistic groups.
Example: The community government in Belgium.

iv) Power sharing between political parties, pressure groups and movements:
• In a democracy, the citizens have the freedom to choose the government.
• Competition between political parties in the election ensures that the power doesn’t remain in the hands of one party.
• Interest groups also get a share in power.
• For example, in Tamil Nadu, DMK and AIADMK come to power periodically.

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