NCERT Class 8 Science Exemplar Chapter 1 - Crop Production and Management

Chapter 1 - Crop Production and Management

Multiple Choice Questions
Question 1: Which one of the following condition is not essential to grow maize?
a) High temperature
b) Humidity
c) Low temperature
d) Rainfall
Answer:
c) Low temperature

Question 2: Propagation of ginger is generally done using
a) seed
b) stem (rhizome)
c) root
d) leaf
Answer:
b) stem (rhizome)

Question 3: Which of the following statement is not true for organic manure?
a) It enhances water holding capacity of soil.
b) It has a balance of all plant nutrients.
c) It provides humus to soil.
d) It improves texture of soil.
Answer:
b) It has a balance of all plant nutrients.

Question 4: The term used for the process of separation of grains from chaff is
a) sieving
b) threshing
c) winnowing
d) hand picking
Answer:
c) winnowing

Question 5: Read the statements given below.
(i) Seeds require moisture for germination.
(ii) Plants can absorb nutrients mostly in dissolved form.
(iii) Irrigation protects crops from both frost and hot air currents.
(iv) Irrigation improves soil texture.
Choose the combination of statements which indicate the need to irrigate crops.
a) i and ii
b) i, ii, iii
c) i, ii, iii, iv
d) i and iii
Answer:
a) i and ii

Question 6: Which of the following tools would a farmer use to remove weeds from the field?
a) Hoe
b) Plough
c) Axed
d) Cultivator
Answer:
a) Hoe

Question 7: Which of the following is not true for fertilisers?
a) They increase the yield.
b) Their excessive use disturbs the balance of nutrients in soil.
c) They are generally used in small quantity.
d) They are environment friendly.
Answer:
d) They are environment friendly.

Question 8: Given below are statements about the harmful effects of weeds on crop plants.
i) They interfere in harvesting.
ii) They help crop plants to grow healthily.
iii) They compete with crop plants for water, nutrients, space and light.
iv) They affect plant growth.
Choose the correct combination of statements.
a) i, iii, iv
b) iii only
c) iii, iv
d) i, ii, iii, iv
Answer:
a) i, iii, iv

Question 9: The process of loosening and turning of soil is called
a) irrigation and manuring
b) digging and winnowing
c) tilling and ploughing
d) harvesting and storage
Answer:
c) tilling and ploughing

Question 10: The monsoon season in our country is during the months
a) April to December
b) June to September
c) November to March
d) January to May
Answer:
b) June to September

Question 11: The system of irrigation where in water is supplied drop by drop near the roots of plants, is called
a) pulley system
b) drip system
c) sprinkler system
d) lever system
Answer:
b) drip system

Very Short Answer Questions
Question 12: Pick out the odd one from the following words given in the box and give reason for it.
Plough, Seed Drill, Hoe, Chain Pump, Sickle
Answer:
Seed drill is the odd one from the following words given in the box, because seed drill is a modern agricultural implement which is used for sowing seeds. The other agricultural implements are traditional tools.

Question 13: If you are given a dry piece of land for cultivation what will you do before sowing the seeds?
Answer:
Before sowing the seeds in a dry piece of land we should first prepare the soil for a proper yield of crops. Preparation of soil consists of loosening and tilling the soil, ploughing, watering, levelling the soil, adding manures and fertilizers to make the soil fertile.

Question 14: State whether the following statements are True or False. Correct the false statements.
i) Using good quality seed is the only criterion to get high yield.
ii) Growing different crops in different seasons in the same field will deplete the soil of nutrients.
iii) All crop plants are sown as seeds in the field.
iv) Cells of root nodules of leguminous plants fix nitrogen.
v) Freshly harvested grains must be dried before storing.
Answer:

i) False; Including good quality seeds, the use of appropriate agricultural practices are important for getting higher yield.
ii) False; It enriches the soil with certain nutrients.
iii) False; Some crop plants are needed to be first transplanted like paddy.
iv) False; Rhizobium, which is a bacteria, present in the cells of root nodules of leguminous plants fix nitrogen.
v) True.

Question 15: During which months do farmers grow mustard in India?
Answer:
During October to March, the farmers grow mustard in India as mustard is a rabi crop and is only grown in winter season.

Question 16: Which activity of the farmer can promote growth of earthworms and microbes in the field?
Answer:
The farmers can promote growth of earthworms and microbes in the field by loosening the soil or maintaining high moisture levels in soil as these bacteria grow in a moisture place.

Short Answer Questions
Question 17: Beera, wants to practice crop rotation in his field. Suggest a Rabi crop and a Kharif crop which will replenish his field with nitrogen. Which crop replenishes nitrogen and why?
Answer:
Rabi crops that Beera has to grow are pea, wheat, mustard while the kharif crops he should grow are paddy, maize, soybean. These crops require different climatic conditions and hence can be grown in two different seasons.  Pea and Soybean are the kharif and Rabi crops that increase the nitrogen content of the soil respectively as they are leguminous plants. These plants form a symbiotic association with nitrogen fixing bacteria Rhizobium in root nodules. The roots are left in the soil after harvest.

Question 18: Match the agricultural implements given in Column A with their use given in Column B.
Column A                              Column B
(i) Sickle                                 (a) Ploughing
(ii) Hoe                                   (b) Sowing
(iii) Seed Drill                        (c) Harvesting
(iv) Sprinkler                         (d) Irrigation
(i)___; (ii)___; (iii)___; (iv)___
Answer:

(i) Sickle - (c) Harvesting
(ii) Hoe - (a) Ploughing
(iii) Seed drill - (b) Sowing
(iv) Sprinkler - (Irrigation)

Question 19: What are organic foods?
Answer:
These crops are the crops that cultivated or grown without using any chemicals like fertilisers, pesticides, weedicides etc.

Question 20: From the word puzzle given as Fig. 1.1 find atleast eight words which are ‘farmer’s friends.’ Classify them into living and non-living.
Answer:

Living: Seed, Earthworm, Rhizobium, Microbes, Ox
Non-living: Plough, Urea, NPK, Manure, Hoe

Question 21:
a) Name the tool used with a tractor for sowing seeds in a field.
b) What are the advantages of using this tool?
Answer:

a) Seed drill is the tool that is used with a tractor for sowing seeds in a field.
b) The advantages of using this tool are:
→ This sows the seeds uniformly at equal distance and depth.
→ It ensures that seeds get covered by the soil after sowing. This protects seeds from being eaten by birds.
→ Sowing by using a seed drill saves time and labour.

Question 22:
a) Name the practice followed for large scale rearing of farm animals.
b) What facilities are provided to farm animals?
Answer:

a) The practice followed for the large scale rearing of farm animals is termed as Animal husbandry.
b) The facilities provided to farm animals are
→ Water and Food
→ Shelter
→ Medical facility
→ Good hygienic practices

Question 23: Classify the following crops into Kharif and Rabi crops and write in the tabular column given below:
Maize, paddy, mustard, pea, gram, wheat, groundnut, cotton.

Kharif Crop

Rabi Crop

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answer:

Kharif Crop

Rabi Crop

Maize

Mustard

Paddy

Pea

Groundnut

Gram

Cotton

Wheat

 

 


Long Answer Questions
Question 24: Despite favourable climatic conditions, a farmer’s crop failed to give good yield. Give the possible reasons for this.
Answer:

→ He did not use good quality seeds.
→ His field was not well irrigated.
→ Manures/fertilisers were not effectively used.
→ Weeds were not removed.

Question 25: As a part of eco-club activity students were asked to raise a kitchen garden in the school premises. They were provided with some materials given in the box. List the other materials you would require. How will you plan the garden? Write the steps.
khurpi, water-can, spade, shovel
Note: You have been asked to use only environment friendly materials.
Answer:

The following items are required - seeds and seedlings of vegetable plants from nursery, kitchen waste, water.
Steps:
→ Kitchen waste will be collected and composted in a pit.
→ A patch of land will be identified for the garden.
→ Soil will be dug up and levelled with the help of a spade.
→ Sowing of seeds or transplanting of seedlings in case of paddy or other plants.
→ Selection of seeds/seedlings as per the season. Watering the plants regularly with a water-can.
→ Compost will be put in the patch of land.
→ Weeds will be removed periodically with the help of Khurpi.

Question 26: Paddy is a major cereal crop in our country.
a) In which season is paddy cultivated?
b) Discuss the method of sowing.
c) What measures must be taken to prevent spoilage and insect attack of harvested grains.
Answer:

a) Paddy is cultivated in the rainy season.
b) Seeds are first grown in a nursery and later seedlings are transplanted in the field.
c) Grains are to be dried by putting them in front of the sun to reduce the moisture content and later stored in jute bags or grain silos.

Question 27: Unscramble the words related to crop production and its management and write in the boxes given beneath them.
Now, using the circled letters, form one word which is an activity carried out in fields, after maturation of crops.
Answer:

i) Silos
ii) Threshing
iii) Irrigation
iv) River

Question 28: Given below is a conversation between two farmers Heera and Beera.
Heera: Brother Beera, your maize crops looks beautiful! They have grown pretty fast.
Beera: Yes, I have sprayed urea this time. What about you?
Heera: Well, I am still relying on good old cow dung. I am saving money for buying a tractor.
Beera: That’s good. Tractor saves a lot of time and labour.
Heera: Yes, it’s been very labour intensive for me and now these weeds have come up.
Beera: Try weedicides, they are very effective.
Now answer the following questions.
(i) List the practices which are not environment friendly and why?
(ii) What is the advantage of modern agriculture implements over traditional ones?
(iii) Name one weedicide and the precaution farmers must take during its application.
Answer:

(i) The practices which are not environment friendly are the use of fertilisers and weedicides which are hazardous to environment as they are made up of chemicals in the factories. Tractor causes air pollution.
(ii) Modern agricultural implements saves on both time and labour in comparison to traditional equipment.
(iii) An example of a weedicide is 2, 4-D. Farmers should cover their mouth and nose while spraying weedicides as they can cause health hazards.

Question 29: For discussion
Despite being one of the growing economies, our country still has a large section of population going hungry and malnourished. Do you think an efficient crop production mechanism is the only solution to this? Discuss in the class what else needs to be done to root out hunger and malnutrition from our country.
Answer:
Despite being one of the growing economies our country still has a large section of the population going hungry and malnourished. Yes, efficient crop production can help to a great extent, but it is not the only solution. We must focus on how to supply the produced food to the needy and poor people.

Question 30: Terms related to agricultural practice are given below. Rearrange them in the correct sequence.
harvesting, sowing, manuring, tilling and ploughing, irrigation, de-weeding.
Answer:
Tilling and ploughing, sowing, manuring, irrigation, de-weeding, harvesting.

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