NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 11 - New Empires and Kingdoms

Chapter 11 - New Empires and Kingdoms

Question 1: State whether true or false:
a) Harishena composed a prashasti, in praise of Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni.
b) The rulers of Aryavarta brought tribute for Samudragupta.
c) There were twelve rulers in Dakshinapatha.
d) Taxila and Madurai were important centres under the control of the Gupta rulers.
e) Aihole was the capital of the Pallavas.
f) Local assemblies functioned for several centuries in South India.
Answer:

a) False
b) True
c) True
d) False
e) False
f) True

Question 2: Mention three authors who wrote about Harshavardhana.
Answer:
The following three authors wrote about Harshavardhana:
• Banabhatta
• Xuan Zang
• Harshavardhana

Question 3: What changes do you find in the army at this time?
Answer:
The following are the changes in the army at this time:
• Like earlier rulers, some of these kings maintained a well-organised army, with elephants, chariots, cavalry and foot soldiers.
• Besides, there were military leaders who provided the king with troops whenever he needed them. They were not paid regular salaries. Instead, some of them received grants of land.
• They collected revenue from the land and used this to maintain soldiers and horses, and provide equipment for warfare. These men were known as samantas.
• Whenever the ruler was weak, samantas tried to become independent.

Question 4: What were the new administrative arrangements during this period?
Answer:
The following were the new administrative arrangements during this period:
• Kings adopted a number of steps to win the support of men who were powerful, either economically, or socially, or because of their political and military strength.
• Some important administrative posts were now hereditary. This means that sons succeeded fathers to these posts. Example: the poet Harishena was a maha-danda-nayaka, or chief judicial officer, like his father.
• Sometimes, one person held many offices. For instance, besides being a maha-danda-nayaka, Harishena was a kumar-amatya, meaning an important minister, and a sandhi-vigrahika, meaning a minister of war and peace.
• Besides, important men probably had a say in local administration. These included the nagarashreshthi or chief banker or merchant of the city, the sarthavaha or leader of the merchant caravans, the prathama-kulika or the chief craftsman, and the head of the kayasthas or scribes.

Question 5: What do you think Arvind would have to do if he was (were) acting as Samudragupta?
Answer:
Arvind would have to do the following things if he was (were) acting as Samudragupta:
• He had to march solemnly in splendid robes, to twirl his moustaches and wield the silver-paper wrapped sword with gusto.
• He had to sit on the throne and play the veena and recite poetry.
• He had to fight several battles.
• He had to keep and help Harishena, a poet of Sanskrit in his court.

Question 6: Do you think ordinary people would have read and understood the prashastis? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:
Ordinary people would have not read and understood the prashastis because they were illiterate and did not know Sanskrit in which the prashastis were written.

Question 7: If you had to make a genealogy for yourself, who are the people you would include in it? How many generations would you like to show? Make a chart and fill it.
Answer:
If I had to make a genealogy for myself, I would like to include the following persons in it:
• Name of my great grandfather.
• Name of my grandfather.
• Name of my father and mother.
• Name of son or sons.
• Name of my grandchildren.

I would like to show the following five generations:
• Great Grandfather
• Grandfather
• Parents
• Myself
• Names of my son and grandson.

Question 8: How do you think wars affect the lives of ordinary people today?
Answer:
Today wars affect the lives of ordinary people today in the following ways:
• They are killed in a large number.
• Their property-houses, shops, etc. are destroyed.
• Wars create violence and disturbances in society.
• Wars waste economic and other resources. The government generally imposed more taxes on the people.

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