NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 - Understanding Marginalisation

Chapter 7 - Understanding Marginalisation

Question 1: Explain at least three different reasons why groups may be marginalised.
Answer:
The three different reasons why groups may be marginalised are:
• They speak languages which are different from that of the majority of people.
• Their customs and traditions are different.
• They have low levels of literacy.

Question 2: Describe various reasons that forced adivasis to move from their lands.
Answer:
Various reason are given below
• More than 50% of adivasis got displaced due to the mines and mining projects.
• Huge tracts of adivasis lands have gone under the waters of hundred dams that have been built in independent India.
• India has 104 National parks and 543 wildlife sanctuaries covering 118918 km². These are areas where tribal originally lived but were evicted from.

Question 3: What is Ghettoisation?
Answer:

• A ghetto is an area or locality that is populated largely by members of a particular community. Ghettoisation refers to the process that leads to such a situation.
• This may occur due to various social, cultural and economic reasons. Fear or hostility may also compel a community to group together as they feel more secure living amongst their own.
• Often a ‘ghettoised’ community has few options of moving out, which may lead to them becoming alienated from the rest of the society.

Question 4: What were the hardships faced by the Adivasis?
Answer:
Hardships faced by the Adivasis
• Forest lands have been cleared for timber and to get land for agriculture and industry.
• Adivasis have also lived in areas that are rich in minerals and other natural resources. These are taken over for mining and other large industrial projects.
• Huge tracts of their lands have also gone under the waters of hundreds of dams that have been built in independent India.
• In the North east, their lands remain highly militarised and war-torn.
• India has 54 national parks and 372 wildlife sanctuaries. These are areas where tribals originally lived but were evicted from.
• Losing their lands and access to the forest means that tribals lose their main sources of livelihood and food.
• Adivasis have migrated to cities in search of work where they are employed for very low wages in local industries or at building or construction sites.
• They, thus, get caught in a cycle of poverty and deprivation.

Question 5: What happened to Adivasis when they lost the access to their traditional homelands?
Answer:
Losing their lands and access to the forest means that tribals lose their main sources of livelihood and food.
• Many Adivasis have migrated to cities in search of work where they are employed for very low wages in local industries or at building or construction sites.
• They, thus, get caught in a cycle of poverty and deprivation. 45 per cent of tribal groups in rural areas and 35 per cent in urban areas live below the poverty line.
• This leads to deprivation in other areas. Many tribal children are malnourished.
• Literacy rates among tribals are also very low.


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