NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 8 - Confronting Marginalisation

Chapter 8 - Confronting Marginalisation

Question 1: What are the ways in which marginalized communities tried to overcome the discrimination they faced?
Answer:
They have attempted to overcome their situation by adopting a range of strategies in their long history such as
• religious solace
• armed struggle
• self-improvement and education, economic uplift

Question 2: How have the marginalised communities drawn on the fundamental rights? And list two Fundamental Rights in the Constitution.
Answer:
They have drawn on these rights in two ways: first, by insisting on their Fundamental Rights,
• First, they have forced the government to recognise the injustice done to them.
• Second, they have insisted that the government enforce these laws.
Two Fundamental Rights in the Constitution that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals are:
→ Right to Freedom
→ Right to Equality

Question 3: By what names are the manual scavengers known in different parts of our country?
Answer:
Manual scavengers are known as
• Bhangis in Gujarat
• Pakhis in Andhra Pradesh
• Sikkaliars in Tamil Nadu

Question 4: What is Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006?
Answer:
The central government passed the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.
• This Act is meant to undo the historical injustices meted out to forest dwelling populations in not recognising their rights to land and resources.
• This Act recognises their right to homestead, cultivable and grazing land and to non-timber forest produce.
• The Act also points out that the rights of forest dwellers includes conservation of forests and bio-diversity

Question 5: How does the reservation policy work?
Answer:

• Governments across India have their own list of Scheduled Castes (or Dalits), Scheduled Tribes and backward and most backward castes.
• The central government too has its list. Students applying to educational institutions and those applying for posts in government are expected to furnish proof of their caste or tribe status, in the form of caste and tribe certificates.
• If a particular Dalit caste or a certain tribe is on the government list, then a candidate from that caste or tribe can avail of the benefit of reservation.

Question 6: How does the Constitution of India protect the right of the minorities?
Answer:
The Indian constitution recognized that the culture of the majority influences the way in which society and government might express themselves.
• Constitution provides safeguards to religious minorities as part of our fundamental rights.
• Safeguards are present to protect minority communities against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the majority.
• They also protect them against any discrimination and disadvantage that they may face.
• Given certain conditions, communities that are small in number relative to the rest of society may feel insecure about their lives, assets and well-being. This sense of insecurity may get accentuated if the relations between the minority and majority communities are fraught. The Constitution provides these safeguards because it is committed to protecting India’s culture diversity and promoting equality as well as justice.

Question 7: Define the following terms with reference to the Confronting Marginalization:
a) Assertive
b) Confront
c) Dispossessed
d) Ostracise
e) Policy
Answer:

a) Assertive: An assertive person or group is one that can express themselves and their views strongly.
b) Confront: To come face to face or to challenge someone or something. In the context of this chapter, this refers to groups challenging their marginalisation.
c) Dispossessed: To possess is to own something and to be dispossessed is to have to give up ownership or to give up authority.
d) Ostracise: This means to exclude or banish an individual or a group. In the context of this chapter, it refers to a social boycott of an individual and his family.
e) Policy: A stated course of action that provides direction for the future, sets goals to be achieved or lays out principles or guidelines to be followed and acted upon. In this chapter, we have referred to government policies. But other institutions like schools, companies, etc. also have policies

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