NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 - Industries

Chapter 5 - Industries

Question 1:  What is meant by the term ‘industry’?
Answer:
Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with
• the production of goods like iron and steel industry
• extraction of minerals like coal mining industry
• the provision of services like tourism industry

Question 2: How are industries classified on the basis of raw materials?
Answer:
Industries may be agro based, mineral based, marine based and forest based depending on the type of raw materials they use. 

Question 3: Define the process ‘smelting’ and Sunrise Industries.
Answer:

• Smelting: It is the process in which metals are extracted from their ores by heating beyond the melting point.
• Sunrise Industries: Emerging industries are also known as ‘Sunrise Industries’. These include Information technology, Wellness, Hospitality and Knowledge.

Question 4: Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?
Answer:
The location of industries is affected by the availability of
• raw material
• land
• water
• labour
• power
• capital
• transport
• market

Question 5: What are the stages involved in converting iron ore into steel?
Answer:
There are many stages in converting iron ore into steel.
• Stage I
Iron Ore, coal and lime stone are put in a blast furnace and melted to extract the metal. This process is called smelting.
• Stage II
The iron that is extracted from the furnace is refined. This extract is called steel.
• Stage III
The steel is then cast as billets or slabs. These billets and slabs are used by other Industries as raw material.

Question 6: Name two countries which are the major hubs of the given industries.
a) Textile
b) Iron and steel
c) Information technology
Answer:

a) Textile: India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan and Japan
b) Iron and steel: Germany, USA, Japan, Russia and China
c) Information technology: Silicon Valley of Central California and the Bangalore region of India

Question 7: Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of the modern industry and why?
Answer:
Steel is often called the backbone of modern industry because almost everything we use is either made of steel or has been made with machinery or tools made out of steel. Ships, trains, trucks, and automobiles are made largely of steel. From safety pins to big ships are made from steel.
• Oil wells are drilled with steel machinery.
• Steel pipelines transport oil.
• Minerals are mined with steel equipment.
• Farm machines are mostly made of steel.
• Large buildings have steel framework.

Question 8: Where and when was the first modern textile mill established in India? Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?
Answer:

• The first successful mechanized textile mill established in Mumbai in 1854.
• The cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai due to the following favourable factors:
→ Warm and moist climate
→ Availability of the port for importing of machinery
→ Availability of raw material
→ Availability of skilled labour
→ Proximity to markets

Question 9: Distinguish between the following.
a) Agro-based and mineral-based industry
b) Public sector and joint sector industry
Answer:

a)
• Agro based industries
→ Agro based industries use plant and animal-based products as their raw materials.
→ Examples of raw materials used: animal skin, crops.
→ Examples of industries: leather industry, food processing, dairy products.
• Mineral based industries
→ Mineral based industries use mineral ores as their raw materials.
→ Examples of raw materials used: iron ore, limestone
→ Examples of industries: iron and steel industry.

b)
• Public sector industry
→ Public sector industries are owned and operated by the government
→ Examples: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
• Joint sector industry
→ Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
→ Examples: Maruti Udyog

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