NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 6 - Population

Chapter 6 - Population

Question 1: “Population is the pivotal element in Social Studies”. Explain.
Answer:

• Population is the pivotal element in social studies. It is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed and from which they derive significance and meaning.
• ‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are all meaningful only in relation to human beings.
• Their numbers, distribution, growth and characteristics or qualities provide the basic background for understanding and appreciating all aspects of the environment.
• Human beings are producers and consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it is important to know how many people are there in a country, where do they live, how and why their numbers are increasing and what are their characteristics.

Question 2: What is Census? Explain its importance.
Answer:

• A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India the first census was held in the year 1872. The first complete census, however was taken in the year 1881.
• Censuses have been held regularly every tenth year. The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data.
• The census of India provides us with information regarding the population of our country.

Question 3: What do you understand by the term population density? Name the states with highest and lowest population density.
Answer:

• Population density is the number of persons per unit area.
• The state in India which has the highest population density is Bihar.
• The state in India which has the lowest population density is Arunachal Pradesh.

Question 4: What are the reasons of uneven distribution of population in India? Explain with examples.
Answer:

• Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions are primarily responsible for sparse population in these areas.
• Assam and most of the Peninsular states have moderate population densities. Hilly, dissected and rocky nature of the terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils have influenced population densities in these areas.
• The Northern Plains and Kerala in the south have high to very high population densities because of the flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall.

Question 5: What is meant by Population Growth? How is it expressed?
Answer:

• Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period of time.
• Such a change can be expressed in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and in terms of percentage change per year.

Question 6: Explain the three main processes of population change in India.
Answer:
There are 3 main process of change of population are birth rates, death rates and migration.
• Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.
• Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
• Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries).
• Internal migration does not change the size of the population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation.

Question 7: How is migration a determinant factor of population change?
Answer:

• Migration is an important determinant of population change. It changes not only the population size but also the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition.
• In India, the rural-urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of population in cities and towns.
• In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the “push” factor in rural areas. These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and the “pull” of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions.

Question 8: What are the push and pull factors responsible for migration?
Answer:
In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the “push” factor in rural areas. These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and the “pull” of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions.

Question 9: What is meant by age composition? Explain briefly.
Answer:
The age composition of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country. The population of a nation is, generally, grouped into three broad categories.
• Children (generally below 15 years)
They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care.
• Working Age (15-59 years)
They are economically productive and biologically reproductive. They comprise the working population.
• Aged (Above 59 years)
They can be economically productive though they may have retired. They may be working voluntarily but they are not available for employment through recruitment.

Question 10: What is meant by literacy rate? What is the literacy rate in the country as per 2011 Census?
Answer:

• Literacy is a very important quality of a population.
• According to the Census of 2001, a person aged 7 years and above who can read and write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate.
• The literacy rate in the country as per the Census of 2001 is 64.84 per cent; 75.26 per cent for males and 53.67 per cent for females.

Question 11: What is sex ratio? Why is it unfavourable towards women?
Answer:
Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population.
• In most of the families, preferential treatment is given to male child. Female infant mortality rate is very high.
• Many people go for pre-natal sex determination test and if it is girl child they try to kill in women’s womb.
• Dowry deaths, opposition to widow remarriage, lack of nutrition among women are also few of the reasons.

Question 12: Why is literacy considered quality of population?
Answer:

• Only an informed and educated citizen can make intelligent choices and undertake research and development projects.
• Low levels of literacy are a serious obstacle for economic improvement.

Question 13: Explain briefly about occupational structure.
Answer:

• The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure.
• An enormous variety of occupations are found in any country. Occupations are generally classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary.
• Primary activities include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying etc.
• Secondary activities include manufacturing industry, building and construction work etc.
• Tertiary activities include transport, communications, commerce, administration and other services.

Question 14: What is percentage of population engaged in primary and tertiary sectors in India?
Answer:
In India, about 64 per cent of the population is engaged only in agriculture. The proportion of population dependent on tertiary sector is about 20 per cent.

Question 15: What are improvement in health status of people in India?
Answer:

• The substantial improvement is the result of many factors including improvement in public health, prevention of infectious diseases and application of modern medical practices in diagnosis and treatment of ailments.
• Death rates have declined from 25 per 1000 population in 1951 to 8.1 per 1000 in 2001 and life expectancy at birth has increased from 36.7 years in 1951 to 64.6 years in 2001.

Question 16: ‘Despite considerable achievements, health situation is a matter of major concern for India’. Justify.
Answer:

• Despite considerable achievements, the health situation is a matter of major concern for India.
• The per capita calorie consumption is much below the recommended levels and malnutrition afflicts a large percentage of our population.
• Safe drinking water and basic sanitation amenities are available to only one-third of the rural population. These problems need to be tackled through an appropriate population policy.

Question 17: Write a short note on adolescent population in India.
Answer:

• The most significant feature of the Indian population is the size of its adolescent population.
• It constitutes one-fifth of the total population of India.
• Adolescents are generally grouped in the age-group of 10 to 19 years.
• They are the most important resource for the future.
• Nutrition requirements of adolescents are higher than those of a normal child or adult.

Question 18: State the features of Nation Population Policy 2000.
Answer:

• The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age, reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births, achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable disease.
• It also promotes delayed marriage for girls, and making family welfare a people-centered programme.

Question 19: State the features of NPP 2000 with reference to adolescents.
Answer:

• NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population that need greater attention.
• Besides nutritional requirements, the policy put greater emphasis on other important needs of adolescents including protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD).
• It called for programmes that aim towards encouraging delayed marriage and child-bearing, education of adolescents about the risks of unprotected sex, making contraceptive services accessible and affordable, providing food supplements, nutritional services, strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage.

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