NCERT Class 8 Science Chapter 7 - Conservation of Plants and Animals

Chapter 7 - Conservation of Plants and Animals

Question and Answers
Question 1: Define:
a) Biodiversity -
Biodiversity means the variety and variability of all microorganisms, plant and animal life.

b) Deforestation - Deforestation means clearing of forests, and houses and factories and using that land for other purpose like building, houses, factories etc.

c) Ecosystem -
An ecosystem comprises of all the plants, animals and microorganisms in an area along with non-living components such as climate, soil, river, etc.

d) Flora - The plants that grow naturally in a particular area are called flora of that area.

e) Fauna - The animals which live naturally in a particular area are called fauna of that particular area.

f) Desertification - Removal of top layer of soil exposes the lower, hard layers of soil. This soil has less humus and is less fertile. Gradually, the fertile land gets converted into deserts. This is called desertification.

Question 2: Discuss the effects of deforestation on the following:
a) Wild animals
b) Environment
c) Village (Rural Areas)
d) Cities (Urban Areas)
e) Earth
f) Next generation

a) Wild animals: Trees are the habitats as well as sources of food for the wild animals. Deforestation leads to the destruction of the natural habitats of wild animals.

b) Environment: Deforestation increases the temperature and pollution level of the environment. With the increase in the carbon dioxide level and a decrease in the oxygen level, it gives rise to global warming. It also lowers the level of ground water. Moreover, deforestation decreases the soil fertility and so, increases the chances of natural calamities.

c) Villages (Rural areas): The decline in rainfall, the decrease in soil fertility, and the chances of natural disaster affect the village life.

d) Cities (Urban areas): Deforestation result in global warming. It also results in the increase in the level of pollution. Hence, deforestation affects the life in cities.

e) Earth: Deforestation decreases the fertility of soil. It changes the physical properties of soil. All these changes result in desertification.

f) The next generation: Deforestation will majorly affect the life of next generation. The next generation will face problems at every step. Climatic conditions will be adversely affected. There will be scarcity of food and clean environment. Next generation won’t be able to see most of the animal species due to habitat loss.

Question 3: What will happen if:
a) we go on cutting trees
b) the habitat of an animal is disturbed
c) the top layer of soil is exposed
a) The temperature will increase to a greater extent. The chances of natural disaster to occur will increase. The water cycle will get disturbed.

b) The animals will lose their natural habitat and will reach the level of being endangered. Most of the animals may be forced to invade places meant for human living in search of food and shelter.

c) The exposed layer will lose all its nutrients, especially the humus. The water holding capacity of soil will decrease. Desertification will take place.

Question 4: Explain how deforestation leads to reduced rainfall.
Trees give out a huge amount of water in the form of water vapour during transpiration. The reduction of water vapour affects cloud formation resulting in less rainfall.

Question 5: Define
a) Endangered Species - Animals whose number are diminishing to a level that they might face extinction are known as the Endangered Animals.

b) Species - Species is a group of population which are capable of interbreeding. Meaning that the members of a species can reproduce fertile offspring only with the member of their own speaking and not with members of other species. Member of a species has common characteristics.

c) Endemic Species - Endemic species are those species of plants and animal which are exclusively found in a particular area. They are not naturally found anywhere else.

d) Extinct - Extinct species are those species were present in the past but now they are completely vanished. 

e) Sanctuary - They are the areas where animal the protected from any disturbances to them or their habitat. 

Question 6: Differentiate between the following
a) Wildlife Sanctuary and Biosphere Reserves
• Wildlife Sanctuary
The area reserved in a forest for the protec­tion of wild animals.

• Biosphere Reserves
These areas are meant for the protection or conservation of the biodiversity. It also helps in maintaining the culture of that area.

b) Zoo and Wildlife Sanctuary
• Zoo
A place where animals are protected in an artificial habitat.

• Wildlife Sanctuary
A protected area where animals live in their natural habitat.

c) Endangered and Extinct Species
• Endangered Species
The species of animals whose numbers are diminishing to such a level that they might face extinction.

• Extinct Species
The species of animals whose number is zero because of changes in their habitat and other calamities.

d) Flora and Fauna
• Flora
Flora are the plants found in a particular area.

• Fauna
Fauna are the animals found in a particular area. 

Question 7: In order to meet the ever-increasing demand in factories and for shelter, trees are being continually cut. Is it justified to cut trees for such projects? Discuss and prepare a brief report.
Answer: It’s not justified to cut trees just to fulfill our needs. Trees are known as ‘the lung of the earth’. They are the habitat of many living organisms, including animals. They give us oxygen, and maintain the Oxygen and Carbon dioxide balance as well. They firmly bind the soil and hence prevent soil erosion. They also reduce the chances of natural disasters like floods and droughts. They help conserve our rich biodiversity. The cutting of trees causes an increase in the carbon dioxide level, which results in global warming. Moreover, it causes soil erosion, floods, the greenhouse effect, etc. Therefore, trees must be protected.

Question 8: How can you contribute to the maintenance of green wealth of your locality? Make a list of actions to be taken by you.
• Planting Saplings and Trees
• Not throwing garbage here and there
• Awaring people about the uses of trees
• Following 3Rs
• Watering and taking care of plants

Question 9: Define
a) Migratory Birds - The birds which fly very long distances to reach another land are called migratory birds.

b) Reforestation - Reforestation is the restocking of destroyed forests by planting new trees.

c) Red Data Book - The book provides a central information source in organising studies and monitoring programs on rare and endangered species and their habitats. It is regularly consulted when developing and implementing special measures for the protection and rehabilitation of such species.

Question 10: Answer in brief:
a) Why should we conserve biodiversity?
Answer: The variety in life existing on the earth, their inter-relationships, and their relationships with the environment is referred to as biodiversity. We should conserve biodiversity so as to maintain the food chain. The disturbance in the food chain may affect the whole ecosystem.

b) Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why? 
Answer: Since capturing and killing of animals by poachers is still rampant in protected forests and areas, so they are not safe for wild animals. Another reason is people in the neighborhood encroach upon them and destroy them.

c) Some tribals depend on the jungle. How? 
Answer: Some tribes depend on the jungle for the fulfillment of their basic needs of life, such as food, medicine, clothing, shelter, etc.

d) What are the causes and consequences of deforestation? 
Answer: The causes for deforestation are
• Procuring land for cultivation
• Building houses and factories.
• Using wood as fuel of making furniture etc
The natural causes of deforestation are forest fires and drought.

Consequences of deforestation
• Increase in the temperature and pollution level on the Earth
• Increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leading to global warming
• Lowering of groundwater level
• Disturbs the balance in nature
• Decrease in rainfall leading to drought.
• Soil erosion and decrease in soil fertility leading to desertification

e) What is Red Data Book? 
Answer: Red Data Book is a source book which keeps records of all endangered plants and animals. 

f) What do you understand by the term migration? 
Answer: It is the movement of animals from its own habitat for a particular time period every year due to climatic changes or for breeding.

Question 11: Find out national parks in your state. Identify and show their location on outline map of India. 

Question 12: Why should paper be saved? Prepare a list of ways by which you can save paper. 
Answer: About seventeen full grown trees are required to produce one tonne of paper. Paper can be recycle about five to seven times for use. We should save, reuse and recycle paper to save not only trees but also to save the energy, water and chemicals used to make paper.

Some ways to save paper include:
• Recycling of Paper
• Using both sides of paper
• Economical use of paper
• Spreading awareness about the importance of paper


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