NCERT Class 8 Science Chapter 7 - Conservation of Plants and Animals Notes

Chapter 7 - Conservation of Plants and Animals Notes

1. Deforestation
The clearing of forests and using the land for other purposes is called deforestation
The causes for deforestation are
• Procuring land for cultivation
• Building houses and factories.
• Using wood as fuel of making furniture etc
The natural causes of deforestation are forest fires and drought.

2. Consequences of deforestation
• Increase in the temperature and pollution level on the Earth
• Increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leading to global warming
• Lowering of groundwater level
• Disturbs the balance in nature
• Decrease in rainfall leading to drought.
• Soil erosion and decrease in soil fertility leading to desertification

3. Drought
Fewer trees would mean that less carbon dioxide will be used up resulting in its increased amount in the atmosphere. This will lead to global warming as CO₂ traps the heat rays reflected by the earth. The increase in temperature on the earth disturbs the water cycle and may reduce rainfall. This could cause droughts.

4. Desertification
Removal of top layer of soil exposes the hard and rocky lower layers, which have very less humus and air. As they are less fertile, soil becomes like desert. It is termed as desertification.

5. Conservation of forest and wildlife
Forest and wildlife can be conserved by setting up areas like Biosphere reserves Wildlife sanctuaries, National parks, etc.
i) Biosphere reserves are large areas of protected land for conservation of biodiversity and the traditional life of the tribals living there.
ii) National parks are areas reserved for wildlife where they can freely use the habitats and natural resources.
iii) Wildlife sanctuaries are areas where animals are protected from any disturbance to them or their habitat.

6. Flora and fauna
i) Flora are the plants found in a particular area.
ii) Fauna are the animals found in a particular area.
Example: The flora of Pachmarhi consists of sal, teak, wild mango, jamun, silver ferns etc.
The fauna of Pachmarhi consists of wild dog, cheetal, wolf, leopard, blue bull, barking deer etc.

7. Endemic Species
Endemic species are those species of plants and animal found only in a particular area and not found anywhere else.
Example: Sal and wild mango are the endemic flora of Pachmarhi. Bison, Indian giant squirrel and flying squirrel are the endemic fauna of this area.

8. Biodiversity is the variety of plant,  animals and microorganisms found in the area. 

9. The Pachmarhi biosphere reserve consists of a National park called Satpura and 2 Wildlife Sanctuary called Bori and Pachmarhi.

10. Ecosystem is the interaction between the biotic and abiotic factors is called an ecosystem. 

11. Endangered animals are the animal whose number are diminishing the level that they might face extinction.

12. Extinct species are those species who were present in the past but now they have completely vanished.

13. Project Tiger
Project Tiger was launched on 1 April 1973 by the Government of India. The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal Tiger in their natural habitats and also to protect then from extinction and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close a possible. The diversity of ecosystems across the tiger's distribution in the country. The project's task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would migrate to adjacent forests.

14. Red Data Book
The book provides a central information source in organising studies and monitoring programs on rare and endangered species and their habitats. It is regularly consulted when developing and implementing special measures for the protection and rehabilitation of such species.

15. Migration
Migration is the movement of animals from its own habitat to some other habitat for a particular time period every year due to climatic changes or for breeding.
Birds which fly very long distances to reach another land are called migratory birds.

16. Recycling of Paper
About seventeen full grown trees are required to produce one tonne of paper. Paper can be recycle about five to seven times for use. We should save, reuse and recycle paper to save not only trees but also to save the energy, water and chemicals used to make paper.

17. Reforestation
Reforestation is the restocking of destroyed forests by planting new trees.
We should plant at least as many trees as we cut. We have already caused a lot of damage to our forests. If we have to regain our green wealth, reforestation is the only option.

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