NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 6 - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Chapter 6 - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Question 1: What are the three broad categories of natural vegetation?
Answer:
The natural vegetation can be classified as three categories -
• Forests: They are found in areas where temperature and rainfall to support a tree cover.
• Grasslands: They grow in areas in the regions of moderate rain.
• Shrubs: Thorny shrurbs and scrubs grow in dry region.

Question 2: In which part of the world are tropical deciduous forest found?
Answer:
They are found in large parts of India, Northern Australia and in Central America.

Question 3: Write a short note on various types of grasslands.
Answer:
Grassland can be broadly divided into two types -
• Tropical Grasslands: They occur on the either sides of the equator and extend till the tropics. This vegetation grows in the areas of moderate to low amount of rainfall. The grass can grow up very tall, about 3 - 4 metres high. Savannah grasslands of Africa are of this type. Elephants, zebras, giraffes, deer, leopards are common in tropical grasslands.
• Temperate Grasslands: They are found in the mid-morning latitudinal zones and in the interior parts of the continents. The grass here are short and nutritious. Wild buffalos, bisons, antelopes are common in Temperate grasslands.

Question 4: Describe the various types of forests.
Answer:
The various types of forests are -
• Tropical Evergreen Forests: These forests are also known as Tropical Rainforest. They occur in the regions near to the equator and close to the tropics. They receive very heavy rainfall and hot. The trees in these forests don't shed their leaves altogether. The thick canopies don't allow the sunlight to penetrate. Rosewood, Ebony, Mahogany are found.
• Tropical Deciduous Forests: These forests are also known as Monsoon forests. They are found in large parts of India, Northern Australia, and Central America. These regions experience seasonal changes. Trees shed their leaves in dry season to conserve water. Hardwood trees found here are sal, teak, neem, shisham. These trees are useful for making furniture, transport and constructional materials. Tigers, lions, elephants, langoors and monkeys are common here.
• Temperate Evergreen Forests: These forests are located in the mid-latitudinal coastal regions. They are found in the eastern margins of the continents. Eg in South-east USA, South China and in South-east Brazil. They have both hardwood and softwood trees like oak, pine, eucalyptus.
• Temperate Deciduous Forests: These forests are found in higher latitudes. They are found in the north east part of USA, China, New Zealand, Chile and in coastal regions of western Europe. The trees in these forests shed their leaves in dry season. The common trees here are oak, ash, beech etc. Animals found here are deer, fox, wolves, pheasants, monal etc.
• Mediterranean Vegetation: The west and southwest margins of the continents have Mediterranean Vegetation. It is mostly found in the areas around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, Asia and Africa. This vegetation is also found in California in USA, Southwest Africa, Southwestern South America and Southwest Australia. This region is marked for hot dry summers and mild rainy seasons. Citrus fruits such as figs, orange are cultivated.
• Coniferous Forests: These forests are found in higher lattitudes (50 degrees - 70 degrees) of Northern Hemisphere. These forests are also called Taiga which means pure or untouched in Russian language. Trees are tall, softwood which is useful in making paper, match box and packing box etc. Chir, Pine, Cedar are the trees found here. Animals like silver fox, mink, polar bear are found.

Question 5: Give reasons:
a) The animals in polar regions have thick fur and skin.
b) Tropical Deciduous trees shed their leaves in dry season.
c) The type and thickness of vegetation changes from place to place.
Answer:

a) Animals in polar region have thick fur and skin so as to protect themselves from the cold climate.
b) Tropical Deciduous Forests are found in large part of India, Northern part of Australia and America. Such areas experience seasonal changes and hence the tropical deciduous trees shed their leaves in the dry season to save water.
c) The type and thickness of vegetation changes from place to place because of the change in climatic condition, landform, temperature and moisture. Different types of plants and animal can survive in different types of vegetation.

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