NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 5 - Rulers and Buildings

Chapter 5 Rulers and Buildings

Question and Answers
Question 1: How is the “trabeate” principle of architecture different from the “arcuate”?
Answer:
The “trabeate” principle of architecture is different from the “arcuate”. In the trabeate principle of architecture, roofs, doors and windows were made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns. But, in the arcuate principle of architecture, the weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was carried by arches.

Question 2: Who constructed the Kandariya Mahadeva temple?
Answer:
King Dhangadeva of the Chandela dynasty constructed the Kandariya Mahadeva temple.
 
Question 3: What is a shikhara?
Answer:
The highest roof of a Hindu temple is called a ‘Shikhara’. The Rajarajeshvara temple at Thanjavur had the tallest shikhara among the temples of its time.
 
Question 4: What is pietra-dura?
Answer:
Pietra dura is the coloured hard stones placed in depressions carved into marble or sandstone, creating beautiful and ornate patterns. Behind the Emperor Shah Jahan’s throne were a series of pietra dura inlays that depicted the legendary Greek god Orpheus playing the lute. It was believed that Orpheus’s music could calm ferocious beasts until they coexisted with humans peacefully.
 
Question 5: What are the elements of a Mughal chahar bagh garden?
Answer:
Char bagh gardens were gardens placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels. These gardens were called ‘Chahar bagh’ i.e., four gardens because of their symmetrical division into quarters. The chahar bagh garden also had a variation that historians describe as the “riverfront garden”. This dwelling was not located in the middle of the chahar bagh but at its edge, close to the bank of the river.

Question 6: Where was Shah Jahan’s capital in the early years of his reign?
Answer:
It was at Agra.
 
Question 7: How did a temple communicate the importance of a king?
Answer:
Temples were constructed as places of worship and are meant to demonstrate the power, wealth and devotion of the patron. The temples were miniature models of the world ruled by the king and his allies. For example, the Rajarajeshvara temple was built by King Rajarajadeva for the worship of his god, Rajarajeshvaram. Generally, the names of the rulers and the gods were very similar. The king took the god’s name because it was auspicious and he wanted to appear like a God. Through the rituals of worship in the temple, one god (Rajarajadeva) honored another (Rajarajeshvaram).
 
Question 8: An inscription in Shah Jahan’s diwan-i khas in Delhi stated: “If there is Paradise on Earth, it is here, it is here, it is here.” How was this image created?
Answer:
During Shah Jahan’s reign, the different elements of Mughal architecture were fused together in a grand harmonious synthesis. His reign witnessed a huge amount of construction activity, especially in Agra and Delhi. The ceremonial halls of the public and private audience (Diwan-i khas and Diwan-i-am) were carefully planned.These courts were placed within a large courtyard and were described as ‘Chihil Sutun’ or forty-pillared halls.
The audience halls were specially constructed to resemble a mosque and the pedestal on which Shah Jahan’s throne was placed was frequently described as the ‘Qibla’. The idea of the king as a representative of God on earth was suggested by these architectural features.
 
Question 9: Name the king who invaded Sri Lanka? Whom did he defeat?
Answer:
King Shrimara Shrivallabha. He defeated the king, Sena I.
 
Question 10: How did the Mughal court suggest that everyone – the rich and the poor, the powerful and the weak - received justice equally from the emperor?
Answer:
The Mughal court suggests that everyone – the rich and the poor, the powerful and the weak - received justice equally from the emperor in the following ways:
a)  The connection between royal justice and the imperial court was emphasized by Shah Jahan in his newly constructed court inside the Red Fort in Delhi.
b) Behind the emperor, Shah Jahan’s throne was a series of pietra dura inlays that depicted the legendary Greek god Orpheus playing the lute. It was believed that Orpheus’s music could calm ferocious beasts until they coexisted together peaceably.
c) The construction of Shah Jahan’s audience hall aimed to communicate that the king’s justice would treat the high and the low as equals, creating a world where all could live together in harmony.

Question 11: What is the special feature of Fatehpur Sikri, Akbar’s capital?
Answer:
Many of the buildings show the influence of the architectural styles of Gujarat and Malwa.

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