NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 2 - New Kings and Kingdoms

Chapter 2 New Kings and Kingdoms

Question and Answers
Question 1:What did the new dynasties do to gain power?
Answer:
To gain power, the new dynasties took new titles and performed religious rituals to become a part of Kshatriyas. They were regarded as the subordinate or Samantas by their overlords and later declared themselves to be Maha - Samantas after gaining power and wealth. The new dynasties also engaged themselves in warfare to assert their power and carve out their kingdoms for themselves.
 
Question 2: How did Rashtrakutas become powerful?
Answer:
The Rashtrakutas in the Deccan were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka. It was during the mid eighteenth century when Danti Durga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overlord and performed a ritual called 'Hiranya - Garbha' with the help of Brahmanas. During this period, it was thought that the sacrificer would be reborn as Kshatriya, even if he was not one by birth. Also they fought against the dynasties of Gurjara-Pratiharas and Palas. Thus, successfully establishing kingdoms in Karnataka and Gujarat respectively.
 
Question 3: Write a short note on Prashastis.
Answer:
Prashastis are a special kind of inscription, meaning “in praise of”. They were composed by learned Brahmans in praise of the rulers, which may not be literally true; but, they tell us how rulers of that time wanted to illustrate themselves.
 
Question 4: Who were the parties involved in the ‘Tri-partite struggle’.
Answer:
The parties involved in the tripartite struggle were Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties. They fought for centuries for control over Kanauj.  Because there were three “parties” in this longdrawn conflict, historians often describe it as the “tripartite struggle”.
 
Question 5: How did Cholas rise to the power? Trace out the Rajaraja I in this rise.
Answer:
After the decline of the Sangam period, the Cholas became feudatories in Uraiyur. They became prominent in the ninth century and established an empire comprising the major portion of South India. It was under Rajaraja I and his son Rajendra I that the Chola power reached its highest point of glory.
 
Question 6: What were the qualifications necessary to become a member of committee of the Sabha in the Chola empire?
Answer:
  To become a member of a committee of the sabha in the Chola Empire, the following qualifications were necessary:
1. The members should be owners of land from which land revenue is collected.
2. They should have their own homes.
3. They should be between 35 and 70 years of age.
4. They should have knowledge of the Vedas.
5. They should be well-versed in administrative matters and should be honest.
6. They should not be members of any other committee in the last three years.
7. Anyone who has not submitted his accounts, as well as those of his relatives, cannot contest the elections.
 
Question 7: What were the activities associated with Chola temple?
Answer:
Chola temples often became the nuclei of settlements which grew around them. These were centres of craft production. They were not only places of worship, they were the hub of economic, social and cultural life as well. Amount the crafts associated with temples, the making of bronze images was the most distinctive.
 
Question 8: Describe the irrigation system of Chola kingdom.
Answer:
The irrigation system during Chola rule was much improved. A variety of methods were applied for it. Many wells were dug; huge tanks were constructed to collect water. The kings themselves took an interest in organizing labor and resources and extensive planning was done.
 
Question 9: Why were the temples first targets of the conquerors?
Answer:
It was the trend to demonstrate power and resources by building large temples. The rulers often invested a lot in the decoration and maintenance of the temples. So the foreign conquerors made them the target first. The most prominent example of it was the temple of Somnath in Gujarat which was looted several times by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazani who came from Afghanistan. Much of the wealth he carried away was used to create a splendid capital city at Ghazani.
 
Question 10: Define the following:
a) Ur: Settlements of peasants were called ur.
b) Nadu: The larger units of the groups were called ‘Ur’ were called Nadu.
c) Sabha: An assembly of Brahmin landowners.
d) Nagaram: Association of traders.
e) Brahmadeya: Land gifted to brahmanas by kings.

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