NCERT Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 - Working of Institutions

Chapter 4 Working of Institutions

Question and Answer
Question 1: Why do we need political institutions?

Answer:
To attempt various tasks, several arrangements are made in all modern democracies. Such arrangements are called institutions. We need institutions -
1. For ensuring security to the citizens and providing facilities for education and health to all.
2. Collects taxes and spends the money thus raised on administration, defence and development programmes.
3. It formulates and implements several welfare schemes.

Question 2: What do you mean by Parliament? Why do we need Parliament?

Answer:
In all democracies, an assembly of elected representatives exercises supreme political authority on behalf of the people. In India such a national assembly of elected representatives is called Parliament. We need Parliament:-
1. Parliaments is the final authority for making laws in any country. Parliaments all over the world can make new laws, change existing laws, or abolish existing laws and make new ones in their place.
2. Parliaments all over the world exercise some control over those who run the government.
3. Parliaments control all the money that the governments have. In most countries, the public money can be spent only when Parliament sanctions it.
4. Parliament is the highest forum of the discussion and debate on public issues and national policy in any country. Parliament can seek information about any matter.

Question 3: Explain the difference between the 2 houses of the Parliament.

Answer:

 

Lok Sabha

Rajya Sabha

1.

Lok Sabha is also known as the ‘Lower House of the Parliament’ and is also known as ‘The House of the People’.

Rajya Sabha is known as the ‘Upper House of the Parliament’ and is also known as ‘Council of States’.

2.

The members of Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people.

Members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by elected members of State Legislative Assembly.

3.

Money bills can only be introduced in Lok Sabha.

Rajya Sabha doesn’t exercise much power over money related bill.

4.

Lok Sabha dissolves after every 5 years. After every 5 years the term of all elected representatives come to an end.

The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body. It is not subject to dissolution, but one-third of its members retire every 2 years.

5.

Maximum strength of Lok Sabha is 552. Lok Sabha is more powerful than Rajya Sabha.

Maximum strength of Rajya Sabha is 250 members.


Question 4: Why is Lok Sabha more powerful than Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
Lok Sabha exercises supreme power. Lok Sabha exercises more power than Rajya Sabha on various matters.

1. Any ordinary law needs to be passed by both the Houses. But if there is a difference between the two Houses, the final decision is taken in a joint session where all the members of both Houses sit together. Because of the larger number of members, the view of Lok Sabha is likely to prevail in such a meeting.
2. Lok Sabha exercises more powers in money matters. Once the Lok Sabha passes the budget of the government or any other money related law, the Rajya Sabha can’t reject it. It can only delay it by 14 days or suggest changes in it. Lok Sabha may or may not accept these changes.
3. Most importantly, the Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers. If the majority of the Lok Sabha members say they have ‘no confidence’ in the Council of Ministers, all ministers including the Prime Minister, have to quit. The Rajya Sabha doesn’t have this power.

Question 5: Differentiate between political and permanent executive.
Answer:

 

Political Executive

Permanent Executive

1.

Executives who are elected by people for a specific period are called political executives.

The permanent executives are salaried with civil servants who are appointed on a long term.

2.

Example: Political leaders like the Prime Minister, Council of Ministers.

Persons working in civil services. Example: IAS, IPS and IFS.

3.

They remain in office only so long as they command the confidence of the majority members of the Parliament.

They remain in office even when the ruling party changes. Their tenure of the office is fixed.

4.

They are answerable to people for all the consequences of their decisions.

They are not answerable to the people.

5.

They are more powerful. They take all the final decision.

They are less powerful. They don’t take decisions. Instead they assist political executives in carrying out day-to-day administration.

 
Question 6: Why is political executive more powerful than permanent executive?
Answer:

1. The reason is very simple. In a democratic the will of the people is supreme. The minister is an elected representative of the people and thus empowered to exercise the will of the people on their behalf.
2. Ministers are finally answerable to the people for all the consequences of their decision. That is why the minister takes all the final decisions.
3. The minister decides the overall framework and objectives in which decisions on policy should be made.

Question 7: Write briefly about the following:
a) Council of Ministers

Council of Ministers is the official name for the body that includes all the ministers. It usually has 60-80 ministers of different ranks.

b) Cabinet Minister
Cabinet minister are usually top-level leaders of the ruling party or parties who are in charge of the major ministries. Usually the Cabinet ministers meet to take decisions in the name of the Council of Ministers. Cabinet is thus the inner ring of the Council of Ministers. It comprises about 25 ministers.

c) Ministers of State with independent charge
Ministers of State with independent charge are usually in-charge of smaller ministries. They participate in the Cabinet meetings only when specially invited.

d) Ministers of State
Ministers of Sate are attached to and required to assist Cabinet Ministers.

Question 8: Describe the powers of the Prime Minister.
Answer:
As the head of the government, the Prime Minister has wide ranging powers.
1. Prime Minister chairs Cabinet meetings.
2. Prime Minister coordinates the work of different Departments.
3. His/her decisions are final in case disagreements arise between Departments.
4. He/she exercises general supervision of different ministries.
5. All ministers work under his/her leadership.
6. The Prime Minister distributes and redistributes work to the ministers.
7. He/she also has the power to dismiss ministers.
8. When the Prime Minister quits, the entire ministry quits.

Question 9: How is President elected? What are his/her power?
Answer:
The President is the head of the State.
1. The President is not elected directly by the people. The elected Members of Parliament (MPs) and the elected Members of the Legislative Assemblies (MLAs) elect the President.
2. A candidate standing for President’s post has to get a majority of votes to win the election.
3. All governmental activities take place in the name of the President. All laws and major policy decisions of the government are issued in his/her name.
4. All major appointments are made in the name of the President. These include the appointment of the Chief Justice of India, the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts of the States, the Governors of the States, the Election Commissioners, Ambassadors to other countries etc. All international treaties and agreements are made in the name of President. The President is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India.

Question 10: Who appoints the Prime Minister?
Answer:
The President appoints the Prime Minister.

Question 11: What is an independent judiciary?
Answer:
1. Independence of the judiciary means that it is not under the control of the legislature or the executive.
2. The judges do not act on the direction of the government or according to the wishes of the party in power. That is why all modern democracies have courts that are independent of the legislature and the executive.
3. The judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and in consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
4. Once a person is appointed as judge of the Supreme Court or the High Court it is nearly impossible to remove him/her from that position.

Question 12: What is an integrated judiciary?
Answer:

1. The Indian judiciary consists of a Supreme Court for the entire nation, High Courts in the states and District Courts and the Courts at the local level.
2. India has an integrated judiciary. It means the Supreme Court controls the judicial administration in the country.
3. Its decisions are binding on all other courts of the country.

Question 13: What are the functions and powers of judiciary?
Answer:

Powers of the Judiciary:
1. The powers and the independence of the Indian judiciary allow it to act as the guardian of the Fundamental Rights.
2. The citizens have a right to approach the Courts to seek remedy in case of any violation of their rights.

Functions of Judiciary:
1. The Judiciary in India is also one of the most powerful in the world.
2. The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to interpret the Constitution of the country.
3. They can declare invalid any law of the legislative or the actions of the executive, whether at Union level or at the State level, if they find such a law or action is against the Constitution.
4. Thus they can determine the Constitution validity of any legislation or action of the executive in the country, when it is challenged before them. This is known as Judicial Review.
5. The Supreme Court of India has also ruled that the core or basic principles of the Constitution can’t be changed by the Parliament.
6. Judiciary can take up any dispute
→ Between citizens of country
→ Between citizen and government
→ Between two or more state government
→ Between government at the Union and state level

No comments:

Post a Comment

Also read!

Class 6 Solutions

• Class 7

Class 7 Computer Kips Solutions
Class 7 Gul Mohar English Solutions
English Grammar Class 7
English Writing Skills Class 7
Class 7 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 7 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 7 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT History Solutions
Class 7 NCERT History Notes
Class 7 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Science Notes
Class 7 NCERT Science Extra Questions

• Class 8

Class 8 Kips Artificial Intelligence Solutions
Class 8 Gul Mohar English Solutions
English Grammar Class 8
English Writing Skills Class 8
Class 8 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 8 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 8 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT History Solutions
Class 8 NCERT History Notes
Class 8 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Science Notes
Class 8 NCERT Science Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Science Exemplar
Class 8 NCERT Science MCQs

Class 9 Solutions

• Class 10

Class 10 Kips Artificial Intelligence Solutions
Class 10 NCERT English Solutions
→ Class 10 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 10 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 10 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT History Solutions
→ Class 10 NCERT History Notes
Class 10 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Science Notes
Class 10 NCERT Science Extra Questions

• Computer languages
Python Basics

• Extra Activities
Extra Activities

• Extra Knowledge
Extra Information
General Knowledge
Historical Places in India
Latest technology
Physical Sciences
Facts

• Mathematics quick links
Mathematical Terms
Maths Tricks

CONTACT US