NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 3 - The Delhi Sultans

Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans

Question and Answers
Question 1: Which ruler first established his or her capital at Delhi?
Answer:
Ananga Pala was the first to establish his capital at Delhi.

Question 2: According to 'The circle of justice', why was it important for the military commanders to keep interests of peasantry in mind?
Answer
: According to the “The circle of justice”, it was important for military commanders to keep the interests of the peasantry in mind, because the salaries of the military commanders came from the revenue collected from peasants. However, the peasants were able to pay their revenue only when they were prosperous and happy. Thus, the military commanders promoted justice and honest governance.

Question 3: Name the five dynasties that together made Delhi Sultanate.
Answer:
The five dynasties that together made Delhi Sultanate are
1. Mamluk dynasty (1206 - 1290)
2. Khalji dynasty (1290 - 1320)
3. Tughluq dynasty (1320 - 1414)
4. Sayyid dynasty  (1414 - 1451)
5. Lodi dynasty (1451 - 1489)

Question 4: Why was Raziyya not accepted as a Sultan in spite of being talented? Do you think women leaders are accepted more readily today?
Answer:
Raziyya was Sultan Iltutmish's daughter. She became Sultan in 1236. She was very talented. According to the chronicler of the age, Minhaj - i - Siraj, she was more qualified than all her brothers. But she was not accepted when she became a ruler. Those days womens were not allowed to enjoy independent identity. They were supposed to subordinate to the men. This led to her removal from the throne in 1240.

Question 5: Who were the authors of Tawarikh? Write a brief about them.
Answer:
The authors of tawarikh were learned men. They were secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers who recounted events as well as advised rulers on governance, emphasising the importance of just rule. The authors of tawarikh lived in cities mainly in Delhi and therefore they were cut off from the village. They used to write histories in praise of rich rewards. These authors advised rulers that they should follow an ideal social order based on birthright and gender distinction. Common masses had nothing to do with their ideas.

Question 6: From which country did Ibn Battuta travel to India?
Answer:
Ibn Battuta travelled to India from Morocco, Africa.

Question 7: What were the steps taken to ensure that muqtis performed their duties?
Answer:

1. Their office was not inheritable.
2. They were assigned iqtas for a short period of time before being shifted.
3. Accountants were appointed by the plate to check the amount of revenue collected by the muqtis.

Question 8: Muhammad Tughluq's administrative measures were a failure. Explain with the help of examples.
Answer:
Muhammad Tughluq's administrative measures were a failure because of the following reasons -
1. He campaigned into Kashmir which was a disaster. He then gave up his plans to invade Transoxiana and disbanded his large army.
2. His administrative measures created problems. He shifted the residents of the old city to the new capital of Daulatabad in the south. People did not like this step taken by Muhammad Tughluq. They resented collectively.
3. Tughluq, in order to meet the expense of maintaining a large number of soldiers, levied additional taxes which increased the burden of common people.
4. The famine in the Ganga-Yamuna belt led to widespread rebellion.
5. Muhammad Tughluq's policy of 'token' currency also proved a failure. People of the 14th century did not trust this currency. They were very smart. They saved their gold and silver coins and paid all their taxes to the state with the token currency. This cheap currency could also be counterfeited easily.

Question 9: Give an account of Alauddin's administrative measure.
Answer:

1. Alauddin Khalji raised a large standing army as a defensive measure.
2. He constructed a new garrison town known as Siri for his soldiers.
3. The soldiers had to be fed. This was done through the produce collected as tax from lands between the Ganga and Yamuna. The tax was fixed at 50% of the pleasant's produce.
4. He paid his soldiers cash salaries rather than iqta. This was done in order to make soldiers able to buy their supplies from merchants in Delhi. It was feared that merchants would raise their prices. In order to stop this Alauddin controlled the prices of goods in Delhi. Prices were carefully surveyed by officers and merchants who did not sell at the prescribed rates were punished.

Question 10: Write a short note on Khalji's reforms.
Answer:
Alauddin abolished Jagir system and paid salaries in cash. He fixed the pay of soldiers in takas. Alauddin Khalji maintained a huge army. The revenue had to be paid was increased to one-third and had to paid in salaries.

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