NCERT Class 7 Civics Chapter 3 - How the State Government Works? Notes

Chapter 3 - How the State Government Works? Notes

1. Government works at three levels - local, state and national.

2. Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) are elected by the people. MLA of the area represents people.

3. Every state in India has a Legislative Assembly. Each state is divided into different areas or constituencies of MLAs and MPs.

4. Different political parties stand their candidates in the elections. The independent candidates can also fight as an independent candidate.

5. A political party whose MLAs win more than half the number of constituencies in a state can be said to be in a majority.

6. A political party whose MLAs have won more than half the number of constituencies in a state can said to be in a majority. The majority of a single party or groups of parties together can form government. This party is called ruling party and all other members who do not support or participate in the government are called opposition.

7. The MLAs belonging to the ruling party will elect their leader who will become the chief minister. The chief minister then selects other people as ministers. It is the Governor of the state who appoints the chief minister and other ministers.

8. The chief minister and other ministers have the responsibility of running various government departments or ministries.

9. A Legislative Assembly is a place where all the MLAs meet to discuss various issues. All the members of Legislative Assembly meet in the Assembly and can express their opinions and ask questions related to the issue or give suggestions. The concern minister then replies to the questions and tries to assure the Assembly that adequate steps are being taken.

10. The decisions taken in the Legislative Assembly have to be approved by the members of the legislative assembly.

11. The government take action through various departments like the Public Works Department (PWD), the Agriculture Department, the Health Department, the Education Department and so on. Ministers are head of these departments, who are also member of Legislative Assembly and elected by the people.

12. In a democracy, there are various ways through which people express their views and also take action. Not only in the Legislative Assembly but also through the TV channels, newspapers, periodicals and other organizations, the government functioning, policies etc, are regularly discussed.

13. Organization of ‘press conference’ is also a medium to express about the policies and functioning of a department or ministry of government. In a ‘press conference’ a press note is issued to the print and electronic media for the wide circulation to the mass.

14. On any matter, which affects a government it may form a committee. After looking at various aspects of the problem or issue, the committee submit its report to the government and then government may adopt it as a whole or partially. Accordingly, the action is taken on report of the committee.

15. The main work of the government is to implement its laws, rules, regulation and policies made in various fields. The government may amend, modify in the laws, rules, regulation and policies or can make new one, so that an effective system may run and most of the people can get the benefit of government policies.

16. Constituency is a particular area from which all the voters living there choose their representatives. This could be, for example, a panchayat ward or an area that chooses an MLA.

17. Majority is a situation when more than half the number in a group supports a decision or an idea. This is also called a simple majority.

18. Opposition refers to elected representatives who are not members of the ruling party and who play the role of questioning government decisions and actions as well as raise new issues for consideration in the Assembly.

19. Press Conference is a gathering of journalists from the media who are invited to hear about and ask questions on a particular issue and are then expected to report on this to the larger public.

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