NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 7 - Human - Environment - Settlement, Transport and Communication Notes

Chapter 7 - Human-Environment - Settlement, Transport and Communication Notes

1. Settlements are places where people build their homes.

2. Early human beings lived on trees and in caves. When they started to grow crops it became necessary to have a permanent home.

3. Early human grew the settlements near the river valley as water was available and land was fertile.

4. Settlements can be permanent or temporary. However more and more settlements today are permanent settlements.

5. In the permanent settlements people build homes to live in.

6. The settlements may be rural or urban settlements.

7. The villages are rural settlement where people are engaged in activities like agriculture, fishing, forestry, crafts work and trading etc. These may be compact or scattered. In the rural settlements people build house to suit their environment.

8. The towns are comparatively small settlements while cities are larger urban settlements. In urban settlements people are engaged in manufacturing, trading, services etc.

9. Transport is the means by which people and goods move. The modes of transport have been changed with the time. In the early age only animals and carts were used.

10. In present, four major means of transport are used i.e., roadways, railways, waterways and airways.

11. The most commonly used means of transport is Roadways. Roadways is used for short distances. Manali - Leh highway in the Himalayan Mountains is one of the highest roadways in the world.

12. The railways carry heavy goods and people over long distance quickly and cheaply. The railway network is well-developed over the plain areas. Indian network is well-developed and it is the largest in Asia.

13. Since early days waterways were used for transportation. Waterways are the cheapest for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances. They are mainly of two types— inland waterways and sea routes.

14. Airway is the fastest way of transport developed in the early 20th. It is the most expensive due to high cost of fuels. Where there are no roads and railways, airways are being used for transportation. For a long distance we also use airways.

15. Communication is the process of conveying messages to others. With the development of technology new and fast modes of communication have developed.

16. In the early age communication was very difficult for the distant places. With the development of postal departments inland letter was used. For the urgent messages telegrams were used. Letter, radio became a vibrant means of communication.

17. In the modem age, with the development of inset, internet and mobile, communication has become an important means of communication. Through these means, we can communicate even in a few second with the people anywhere in the world. The world has become now a global society.

18. The place where a building or a settlement develops is called its site. The natural conditions for selection of an ideal site are -
a) Favourable climate
b) Availability of water
c) Suitable land
d) Fertile soil

19. Transhumance is a seasonal movement of people. People who rear animals move in search of new pastures according to changes in seasons.

20. There are several National and State highways in India. The latest development in India is the construction of Express Ways. The Golden Quadrilateral connects Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

21. The train from Xining to Lhasa runs at an altitude of 4,000 m above sea level and the highest point is 5,072 m.

22. The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway system connecting St. Petersburg in Western Russia to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast.

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