NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 8 - Human-Environment Interactions - The Tropical and the Subtropical Region Notes

Chapter 8 - Human-Environment Interactions - The Tropical and the Subtropical Region Notes

1. The river Amazon flows through tropical region which lies very close to the equator; between 10°N and 10°S. Therefore, it is referred to as the equatorial region.

2. Numerous tributaries join the Amazon River to form the Amazon Basin. The river basin drains portions of Brazil, parts of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Columbia and a small part of Venezuela.

3. The Amazon Basin stretches directly on the equator and is characterized by hot and wet climate throughout the year. Both day and nights are almost equally hot and humid. It rains almost every day. The day temperature is high and in night the temperature goes down. In the day and night humidity remains high.

4. Due to the heavy rainfall, forests are thick and dense leaves create a ‘roof on the upper side of the forests which do not allow the sunlight to reach the ground. Orchids, bromeliads grow as plant parasites.

5. The rainforest is rich in fauna. Birds such as toucans, humming birds etc., are found in the region. Animals like monkeys, sloth and ant-eating tapirs are found here.

6. Various species of reptiles and snakes also thrive in these forests. Crocodiles, snakes, pythons abound, Anaconda and boa constrictor are some of the species. Apart from this, the basin is home to thousands of species of insects, several species of fishes including the flesh eating Piranha fish is also found in the river.

7. People of the Rainforests are mostly depending on the hunting and fishing. They also clear some forest area and grow the crops. They mainly grow tapioca, pineapple and sweet potato. Cash crops like coffee, maize and coca are also grown. The staple food is manioc, also known as cassava that grows under the ground like the potato. They also eat queen ants and egg sacs.

8. The Rainforest are sources of huge wood. Wood is used to make the houses in the region. Some families live in the houses like beehives. Other large houses are called ‘Maloca’ with a steeply slanting roof.

9. The tributaries of rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra together form the Ganga - Brahmaputra basin in the Indian subcontinent. The basin lies in the sub-tropical region that is situated between 10°N to 30°N latitudes. The tributaries of the River Ganga like the Ghaghra, the Son, the Chambal, the Gandak, the Kosi and the tributaries of Brahmaputra drain it.

10. The plains of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra, the mountains and the foothills of the Himalayas and the Sundarban delta are the main features of Ganga and Brahmaputra basin.

11. The area is dominated by monsoon climate. The monsoon brings rains from mid-June to mid-September. The summers are hot and the winters cool.

12. In the mountain area of Ganga - Brahmaputra basin lives less number of people; whereas, in the plain area’s density of population is very high.

13. In the plain areas of Ganga and the Brahmaputra basin the main crop is paddy. Since cultivation of paddy requires sufficient water, it is grown in the areas where the amount of rainfall is high. Apart from paddy, wheat, maize, sorghum, gram and millets are the other crops that are grown. Cash crops like sugar cane and jute are also grown. Banana plantations are seen in some areas of the plain.

14. In parts of Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, coniferous trees like pine, deodar and fir can be seen because the climate is cool and the slopes are steep.

15. In the Ganga and the Brahmaputra basin, there is a variety of wildlife. Elephants, tigers, deers and monkeys are common. The one-horned rhinoceros is found in the Brahmaputra plain. In the delta area, Bengal tiger, crocodiles and alligators are found. The most popular varieties of the fish are the rohu, catla and hilsa. Fish and rice is the staple diet of the people living in the area.

16. Many cities are located along the various rivers. The rivers are being polluted increasingly by the population of cities and industries.

17. In the Ganga and the Brahmaputra basin all the four ways of transportation are well developed. The roadways, railways, waterways and airways are used for transportation by the people.

18. Tourism is another important activity of the basin. The Taj Mahal on the banks of River Yamuna in Agra, Allahabad on the confluence of the Rivers Ganga and Yamuna, Buddhist stupas in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, Lucknow with its Imambara, Assam with Kaziranga and Manas with wildlife sanctuaries and Arunachal Pradesh with a distinct tribal culture are some of the places worth a visit.

19. When Spanish explorers discovered the Amazon River, they were attacked by a group of local tribes wearing head gears and grass skirts. These people reminded them of the fierce tribes of women warriors known in ancient Roman Empire as the Amazons. Hence the name Amazon.

20. Tributaries are small rivers that join the main river. The main river along with all its tributaries that drain an area forms a river basin or the catchment area. The Amazon Basin is the largest river basin in the world.

21. Bromeliads are special plants that store water in their leaves. Animals like frogs use these pockets of water for laying their eggs.

22. Slash and Burn is a way of cultivating land where farmers clear a piece of land by slashing or cutting down trees and bushes. These are then burnt, which releases the nutrients into the soil. Now crops are grown in this cleared field for a few years. After repeatedly using the patch of land, the soil looses its nutrients. So it is abandoned. Then they clear another plot of land to plant. In the meantime young trees grow in the old field. In this way soil fertility is restored. People can then return to it and start cultivating it again.

23. Population density means the number of persons that live in one sq. km. of area. Example: The population density of Uttarakhand is 189 while the density of West Bengal is 1029 and that of Bihar is 1102.

24. Terraces are built on steep slopes to create flat surfaces on which crops are grown. The slope is removed so that water does not run off rapidly.

25. In the fresh waters of River Ganga and River Brahmaputra, a variety of dolphin locally called Susu (also called blind dolphin) is found. The presence of Susu is an indication of the health of the river. The untreated industrial and urban wastes with high amount of chemicals are killing this species.

26. To accelerate the efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to put fours on sanitation, the Prime Minister of India launched the “Swachh Bharat Mission” on 2nd October 2014.

27. To conserve the River Ganga, ‘Namami’ Ganga Programme has been initiated.

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