NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 - Outcomes of Democracy

Chapter 7 Outcomes of Democracy

Question and Answer
Question 1: “Democracy is a better form of government when compared with dictatorship or any other alternative. “Give reasons to justify this statement.

Answer: Democracy is a better form of government when compared with dictatorship or any other alternative because it:
1. Promotes equality among citizens.
2. Enhances dignity of the individual.
3. Improves the equality of decision making.
4. Provides a method to resolve conflicts and
5. Allows room to correct mistakes.

Question 2: How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
Answer:

Accountable government:
Accountable government is a government which is answerable or which is required to justify its actions/decisions.
In a democracy, people elect their representatives who form government and if they don’t work according to the wishes of the people, they have the right to change them.
Indian government is answerable to the Parliament.

Responsive government:
It is a government which responds positively to needs and aspirations of the people.
The government takes decisions, forms policies (based on norms and procedures) which are acceptable to the people.
Under this whenever possible and necessary, citizens can take part in decision making.

Legitimate government:
A democratic government is people’s own government (rulers elected by people).
That is why there is an overwhelming support for the ideas of democracy all over the world.
People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them, as they believe that democracy is suitable for their country.

Question 3: Is the democratic government efficient and effective? Give reasons to support this statement. / “Democracy is based on the ideas of deliberation and negotiation.” Justify the statement.
Answer:

Non-democratic rulers do not have to bother about deliberation in assemblies or worry about majorities and public opinion, so they are quick and efficient in decision making and implementation.
But it may take decisions that are not accepted by the people and may therefore face problems.
Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation.
It takes more time (there is a delay) to follow procedures before arriving at a decision.
Hence the decisions maybe both more acceptable to the people and more effective.

Question 4: What is meant by transparency?
Answer:

Democracy ensures that decision making will be based on norms and procedures.
So, a citizen who wants to know if the decision was taken through the correct procedures can find this out.
A citizen has the right and means (Right to information) to examine the process of decision making.
This is known as transparency.

Question 5: “Democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable and mechanisms for the citizens to take part in decision making wherever they think fit.” Critically examine the statement.
Answer:

Democracies have had greater success in setting up regular and free elections but fall short of elections that provide a fair chance to everyone.
Democracies have had greater success in setting up conditions for open public debate but fall short in subjecting every discussion to public debate.
Democratic do not have a very good record when it comes to sharing information with citizens.

Question 6: “Democratic governments are attentive to the needs and demands of the people and are largely free of corruption.” Explain the statement.
Answer:

Democracies often frustrate the needs of the people and often ignore the demands of majority of its population.
The routine tales of corruption are enough to convince us that democracy is not free of this evil.
But a democratic government is people’s own government.
That is why there is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world.
People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them.
They also believe that democracy is suitable for their country.

Question 7: “Democracy’s ability to generate its own support is itself an outcome that cannot be ignored.” Explain.
Answer:

Legitimate government:
A democratic government is people’s own government (rulers are elected by people).
That is why there is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world.
People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them, as they believe that democracy is suitable for their country.

Question 8: Why economic growth and development should not be taken as the sole criterion for preference to democracy? Explain.
Answer:

Evidence shows that in practice, many democracies did not fulfil the expectations of economic growth and development. It has been found that dictatorships have slightly higher rate of economic growth.
Economic development depends on several factors like country’s population size, global situation, co-operation from other countries, economic priorities adopted by the country etc.
Hence, democracy should be preferred because it has several other positive outcomes.

Question 9: Do democracies lead to a just distribution of goods and opportunities? / How far democracies lead to a just and equitable distribution of goods and opportunities? / “Democracies do not appear very successful in reducing economic equalities.” Explain by giving any three suitable arguments.
Answer:

Democracies are based on political equality, but when it comes to economic equality there is a huge disparity.
A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a high disproportionate share of wealth and income.
Those that are at the bottom of the society, with little incomes, find it very difficult to meet the basic needs of life.
Though all political parties need the votes of poor people (who constitute a large population of voters) to win elections/come to power/form government, yet democratically elected governments do not appear to be keen to address the question of poverty.
People in several poor countries and dependent on the rich countries even for food supplies.

Question 10: What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities? / Do democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens?
Answer:

It is necessary to understand that democracy is not simply rule by majority opinion. The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to respect the general views. Majority and minority opinions are not permanent.
It is necessary that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group. Democracy remains democracy only when every citizen has a chance of being in the majority at some point of time.

Question 11: How do democracies accommodate social diversities? / “Democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens.” Support the statement with any three suitable arguments.
Answer:

Democracies lead to harmonious and peaceful life among citizens.
Democracies accommodate various social divisions.
They usually develop a procedure to conduct competitions (among different groups). This reduces the possibility of tensions, so that they won’t become explosive or violent.
No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. But we can certainly learn to respect these differences.

Question 12: How is dignity and freedom of the citizens best guarantied in a democracy? / “Democracy stands superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual.” Give arguments to support the statement.
Answer:

Democracies throughout the world have recognized the fact that people should be treated with due respect. The passion of respect and freedom are the basis of democracy.
In societies which have been built for long on the basis of subordination and domination, the groups treated unequally, such as women, dalits and minorities, had to put up long struggles to create sensitivity that respect to and equal treatment are necessary  ingredients of a democratic society, thus making the discrimination unacceptable morally and legally.
Once the principle is recognized, it becomes easier to get their due i.e.; equal status and equal opportunity.

Question 13: “The most distinctive feature of democracy is that its examination never gets over.” Justify the statement. / How are complaints treated as a testimony to the success of democracy? Explain.
Answer:

The examinations of democracy never get over. It is said so because the expectations from democracy never end.
As people get some benefits from democracy, they ask for more and want to see democracy function even better.
The fact that people are complaining is itself a testimony to the success of democracy, it shows that people have developed more awareness.
It transforms people from status of a subject into that of a citizen.
Many individuals today believe that their vote makes a difference to the way the government is run.

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