NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 - Development

Chapter 1 Development

Question 1: “Different persons can have different developmental goals.” Give arguments/reasons to support statement.
Answer:
Different persons can have different developmental goals.
For example:
a)  Landless rural labourers: Developmental goals include more days of work and better wages, better educational facilities for their children and no social discrimination.
b)  Prosperous farmers from Punjab: Assured high income through higher support prices for crops, hardworking cheap labourers, able to settle their children abroad can be the development goals.
c) A girl from a rich urban family:  Get as much freedom as her brother and is able to decide what she wants to do in life.

Question 2: “What may be development for one may not be development for the other”. Explain by giving example / “Developmental goals can be conflicting in nature.” Explain by giving examples.
Answer:
It is true that development for any one may not be development for other, as individual aspirations and desires are different.
In fact, at times two persons or group of persons may seek things which are conflicting.
For example:
a) A girl expects much freedom and opportunity as her brother, and that he also shares in the household work. Her brother may not like this.
b) To get more electricity, industrialists may want more dams. But this may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people (tribal) who are displaced. They might resent this and may prefer small check dams or tanks to irrigate land.

Question 3: What is development?
Answer:
It is a comprehensive term which includes increase in real per capita income, improvement in the living standard of the people by providing amenities like education, health care, reduction in poverty etc.

Question 4: Mention any three characteristics of development.
Answer:
Different people have different developmental goals, as individual aspirations and desires are different.
At times, developmental goals of two people or two groups might be conflicting in nature.
Income is the most important component of development.
Apart from income people also seek equal treatment, freedom, respect from other, etc.
Hence, we can conclude that for development people look at a mix of goals.

Question 5: “Money cannot buy all the goods and services (things) that are needed to live well.” Explain.
Answer:
Money or material things that one can buy with it is one factor on which our life depends.
But the quality of life also depends upon non-material things like equal treatment, freedom, security and respect of other, which cannot be bought.
Money also cannot buy a pollution – free environment or get unadulterated medicines or protect people from infectious diseases or provide other facilities.
It is the community/society/government that needs to make provisions to provide all the above-mentioned things.

Question 6: What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Answer:
The World Bank classifies countries according to the Per Capita Income (National Income/Total population)
Countries with PCI of more than US $12,056 per annum and above are called rich countries.
Countries with PCI less than US $955 as low-income countries.

Limitations:
It takes into account only income but no other aspects like literacy, health, life expectancy etc.
It doesn’t tell us how the income is distributed among citizens.

Question 7: In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different form the one used by the World Bank?
Answer:
The World Development Report brought out be the World Bank classifies countries basing on their Per Capita Income as rich countries, low income countries and middle-income countries.
The Human Development Report published by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.

Question 8: Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with an example.
Answer:
For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes.
However, for comparison between countries/states, total income is not such a useful measure since countries have different population.
Hence, average income is taken into account.

Limitations:
Average income/Per Capita Income does not tell us how income is distributed among people.
Example: Average income of four persons, with income as Rs. 15, 1000, 485 and 4500 is Rs. 1500. But it is not a true representative income for all the four persons because one person in having income Rs. 15 and other is having Rs. 4500. Both are non-comparable.

Question 9: Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives. / Describe any five conditions or aspects that you would consider before accepting a job/If you get a job far off place, before accepting it, you would try to consider many factors. Explain any five such factors.
Answer:

a) If one gets a job in a far-off place, before accepting it one would try to consider many factors, apart from income such as:
• Facilities for family – educational and medical
• Working atmosphere – co-operative and healthy
• An opportunity to learn – for personal career growth
• Regular employment/Job security
• Time for family – fixed working hours, paid holidays etc.
• Sense of security and freedom

b) If women are engaged in paid work, their dignity in the household and society increases.
There would be more sharing of housework and a greater acceptance of women working outside.
A safe and secured environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.
Hence, the developmental goals that people have are not only about income but also about other important things in life.

Question 10: Explain the three components of Human Development Index.
Answer:
Human development report published by the UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and Per Capita Income.
Per Capita Income: It is the total income of the country divided by its total population.
Life Expectancy at Birth: This denotes the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth. Life Expectancy at birth has a direct and positive relationship with health status of a country.
Literacy Rate: This measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group. Higher literacy rate of a country improves its Human Development Index.

Question 11: Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain with the help of examples.
Answer:
Sustainable development means development should take place without damaging the environment and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generation.
It is important as:
1. It cares for the needs of the futures generation.
2. It promotes an efficient use of natural resources.
3. It lays emphasis on quality life.
4. It provides long term solutions.

Examples:
1. Crude oil is a non-renewable resource. It is estimated that these reserves would last only for 45 years more. If this resource gets depleted further, it would definitely affect the three sectors of the national economy, as the prices of oil increase. Hence, the non-renewable resources have to be used judiciously and we should discover new resources that can be used in place of crude oil.

2. Ground water is overused in agriculture. Water is drawn from wells and this leaves the underground water-table depleted. Since water is a renewable resource, we must help in replenishing water.

Question 12: Write the importance of Human Development Index on three points.
Answer:

1. Human development Index is published by the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme).
2. HDI rankings given to countries across the world gives us a picture of where do various countries stand in terms of education levels, health status and per capita income put together.
3. It is broader concept of development as goals other than level of income are being taken into account.

Question 13: Define the following:
a) Per Capita Income
Answer:
It is the average income derived by dividing the National Income by Total Population.
Per Capita = National Income
                        Total Population

b) Infant Mortality Rate
Answer:
The number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion to 1000 live children born in that particular year.

c) Literacy Rate
Answer:
Proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.

d) Net Attendance Ratio
Answer:
Total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

e) Life Expectancy
Answer:
Average expected length of life of a person calculated at the time of birth.

f) Gross Enrolment Ratio
Answer:
Enrolment ratio for primary school, secondary school and higher education beyond secondary school.

g) Body Mass Index
Answer:
B.M.I =      Weight in kgs.
                                    (Height in meters)²

Question 14: “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Explain.
Answer:
This statement was given by Mahatma Gandhi.
1. It means that the earth has abundant resources to satisfy everyone’s needs, but the greedy nature of the humans has led to over exploitation of resource to such as extent that the stock of some non-renewable resources has depleted to dangerous levels.
2. These resources might get exhausted in the near future, if the exploitation continues.
3. The exploitation of natural resources not only harms the environment but may cripple the future generations of the development process itself.
4. Thus, there is a need for conservation and judicious use of resource for development.

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