NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 1 - Nutrition in Plants Notes

Chapter 1 - Nutrition in Plants Notes

1. Vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and minerals are the components of food. These components of food are necessary for our body and are called nutrients.

2. The process of procuring and utilization of food by the body is called nutrition.

3. The mode of nutrition in which organisms make food themselves from simple substances is called autotrophic (auto = self; trophos = nourishment) nutrition. Example: Plants

4. The mode of nutrition in which organisms take in readymade food made by plants is called heterotrophic (heteros= other; trophos = nourishment) nutrition. Example: Animals

5. Carbon dioxide from air is taken in through the tiny pores present on the surface of the leaves. These pores are surrounded by ‘guard cells’ such pores are called stomata.

6. The leaves have a green pigment and they are known as chlorophyll.

7. Plants use sunlight, carbon dioxide and water in presence of chlorophyll to synthesise their food. This process is known as photosynthesis.


8. The sun is the ultimate source of energy for all living organisms.

9. The bodies of living organisms are made of tiny units which are called cells.

10. The organisms either plants or animals that derive nutrients from another organisms are known as parasites. Example: Cuscuta (Amarbel) etc.

11. The organisms which provide nutrients to another organisms without being benefitted are known as hosts.

12. The type of plants which trap insects and digest them by producing digestive juices are called insectivorous plants. Example: pitcher plant etc.

13. The mode of nutrition in which organisms take in nutrients in form of solution from dead and decaying matter is called saprophytic nutrition.

14. Plants which use saprophytic mode of nutrition are called saprotrophs.

15. The organisms which live together and share shelter and nutrients are said to be in symbiotic relationship. Example: certain fungi live in the roots of trees.

16. The cell is enclosed by a thin outer boundary, called the cell membrane.

17. Cells have a distinct, centrally located spherical structure called the nucleus.

18. The nucleus is surrounded by a jelly-like substance called cytoplasm.

19. Photosynthesis also takes place in other green parts of the plant - in green stems and green branches. The desert plants have scale- or spine-like leaves to reduce loss of water by transpiration. These plants have green stems which carry out photosynthesis.

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