Gul Mohar Class 8 English Grammar - Relative Clauses and Relative Pronouns

Relative Clauses and Relative Pronouns

Relative Clause
This is a clause that generally modifies a noun or a noun phrase and is often introduced by a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whom, whose). A relative clause connects ideas by using pronouns that relate to something previously mentioned and allows the writer to combine two independent clauses into one sentence. A relative clause is also known as an adjective clause. There are two types of relative clauses: restrictive and nonrestrictive.
Examples:
• The book that she read was important for her literature review. (Restrictive)
• The participants who were interviewed volunteered to be part of the study. (Restrictive)
• Walden University, which is entirely online, has main administrative offices in Baltimore and Minneapolis. (Non-Restrictive)

Relative Pronouns

 

Referring to a human

Referring to something other than a human

Possessive

Restrictive

who, whom, that*

which, that**

whose

Nonrestrictive (with commas)

who, whom

which

whose


Restrictive Clauses
A restrictive clause restricts or defines the meaning of a noun or noun phrase and provides necessary information about the noun in the sentence. It is not separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Restrictive clauses are more common in writing than nonrestrictive clauses. A restrictive clause is also sometimes referred to as an essential clause or phrase.
Here are a few examples:
• The student who sits in the back of the room asks a lot of questions.
• The results that I obtained may invoke positive social change.
• The journalist whose story I read yesterday has won prizes for her work.
When the relative pronoun functions as the object of the sentence, it can (and usually is) omitted from the relative clause.

Nonrestrictive Clauses
A nonrestrictive clause adds additional information to a sentence. It is usually a proper noun or a common noun that refers to a unique person, thing, or event. It uses commas to show that the information is additional. The commas almost act like parentheses within the sentence. If the information between the commas is omitted, readers will still understand the overall meaning of the sentence. A nonrestrictive clause is also known as a nonessential clause or phrase.
Here are a few examples:
• I want to thank my father, Mark Smith, for all of his love and support.
With the nonrestrictive clause omitted: I want to thank my father for all of his love and support.
• The hypothesis, which I tested throughout the research, was rejected.
With the nonrestrictive clause omitted: The hypothesis was rejected.
• I have found the article, which I have been looking for.
With the nonrestrictive clause omitted: I have found the article.

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