NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 - Water Resources Notes

Chapter 3 - Water Resources Notes

1. Water: Some facts & figures
• Three-fourth of the Earth's surface in covered with water.
• Out of 100% of water, 96.5% of the total volume of the world's water is saline.
• 2.5% is freshwater
• 70% of freshwater occurs as ice sheets and glaciers.
• 29% groundwater.

2. India gets 4% of the global precipitation.
• Land area of India is 2.4% of the world.
• India holds 17% of the world's population.

3. Hydrological cycle ensures that water is a renewable resource.

4. Qualitative aspect of water scarcity: There's a huge amount of water on the Earth, but the quality of water is deteriorating; due conversion of water bodies to drains etc.

5. Quantitative aspect of water scarcity: Water is getting depleting in quantity due to irrigation due to Green Revolution, construction etc.

6. Qualitative aspect of water:
If the following conditions are being continued...
• Industual waste disposal to water
• Excessive use of chemical fertilizers
• Uses of chemical pesticides
• Rapid urbanisation
• Overpopulation
• Global warming like drought

If the above conditions continue, then we going to run short of water

7. Quantitative of water scarcity:
→ India is a monsoon country with 100 - 120 days of monsoon. Then we are still facing water scarcity - Why?
Answer:
• Growing population
• Expanded irrigation
• Intensive industrialisation and urbanisation
• Hydroelectric power generation

→ India has 10,360 small big rivers. Mawsynram is the wettest place in the world. Water is sufficiently available - but the quality...?
Reasons for the bad quality of water:
• Chemical fertilizers & pesticides
• Polluted by domestic and industrial waste.

8. Why water resource is needed to be conserved?
• To ensure food security
• For the continuation of our livelihoods
• To prevent degradation of our ecosystem

9. Grant Anicut/Kallanai
• It was built on the Kaveri River - Tamil Nadu by the Cholas King Karikala around the 2nd century.
• It is one of the oldest water regulator structures is the world, which is still in use.

10. Sringaverapura water harvesting system
• A sophisticated water harvesting system built in the 1st century BC at Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh.

11. Nagrajuna Konda - Andhra Pradesh

12. Bhopal Lake - Madhya Pradesh
• It is a source of drinking water of the city.
• Built between 1005 - 1055 AD by the Malwa king.

13. Hauz Khas - Delhi
• Hauz meane water tank
• Khas means Royal
• Hauz Khas means Royal water tank
• Built by Allauddin Khilji in 1296 - 1316 to supply water for the inhabitants of Siri Fort.

14. Hauz-I-Shamsi (built by Iltumish, Mehrauli)

15. Agrasena ki Baoli
• Built by maharaja Agrasena (more than 5000 years)
• Rebuilt in 14th by the Agarwal community

16. How do dams help us in conserving and managing water?
• Dams were traditionally built to impound rivers and rain water that could be used later to irrigate agricultural areas.

17. What are the different uses of the modern dams?
• Irrigation
• Electricity generation
• Domestic and industrial
• Flood contron
• Recreation
• Inland navigation
• Fish breeding

18. The biggest dam in India is Tehri on Bhagirathi river.
• The highest dam in India is Bhakra Dam on Sutlej River.
• The longest dam in India is the Hirakund dam on Mahanadi river.

19. Why multipurpose projects and large dams have come under great controversy?
• Regulating and damming of river affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir.
• It controls the migration of aquatic fauna.
• It makes submergence of the existing vegetation.

20. Who are the beneficiaries of multi-purpose projects?
• The land owners
• Large farmers
• Industrialists
• Few urban centres

21. Inter- state water disputes
→ Kaveri river water dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
• Disputes have been started since 1870 between princely state of Mysore and Madres presidency.

→ Krishna river water dispute between Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra
Maharastra: 303 km
Karnataka: 480 km
Andhra Pradesh: 517 km

→ Yamuna river water disputes among Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Delhi

→ Godavari river water disputes among Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Chhattisgarh.

22. International water disputes:
• Indus river water dispute between India and Pakistan
• Kosi river water dispute between India and Nepal
• Brahmaputra river water dispute between India amd China

No comments:

Post a Comment

Also read!

Class 6 Solutions

• Class 7

Class 7 Computer Kips Solutions
Class 7 Gul Mohar English Solutions
English Grammar Class 7
English Writing Skills Class 7
Class 7 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 7 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 7 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT History Solutions
Class 7 NCERT History Notes
Class 7 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 7 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 7 NCERT Science Notes
Class 7 NCERT Science Extra Questions

• Class 8

Class 8 Kips Artificial Intelligence Solutions
Class 8 Gul Mohar English Solutions
English Grammar Class 8
English Writing Skills Class 8
Class 8 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 8 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 8 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT History Solutions
Class 8 NCERT History Notes
Class 8 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 8 NCERT Science Notes
Class 8 NCERT Science Extra Questions
Class 8 NCERT Science Exemplar
Class 8 NCERT Science MCQs

Class 9 Solutions

• Class 10

Class 10 Kips Artificial Intelligence Solutions
Class 10 NCERT English Solutions
→ Class 10 Map Pointing Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Civics Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Civics Notes
Class 10 NCERT Civics Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT Geography Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Geography Notes
Class 10 NCERT Geography Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT History Solutions
→ Class 10 NCERT History Notes
Class 10 NCERT History Extra Questions
Class 10 NCERT Maths Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Science Solutions
Class 10 NCERT Science Notes
Class 10 NCERT Science Extra Questions

• Computer languages
Python Basics

• Extra Activities
Extra Activities

• Extra Knowledge
Extra Information
General Knowledge
Historical Places in India
Latest technology
Physical Sciences
Facts

• Mathematics quick links
Mathematical Terms
Maths Tricks

CONTACT US