NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 - Agriculture

Chapter 4 - Agriculture

Question 1: What is agriculture? Name the factors influencing agriculture?
Answer:
Agriculture is a primary activity that includes growing crops, vegetables, fruits, flowers and rearing of livestock.
Some major factors that influence agriculture are:
• Soil
• Climate
• Topography
• Population

Question 2: Describe organic farming. What type of atmosphere is needed for rice cultivation?
Answer:

• Organic farming is a type of farming, organic manure and natural pesticides are used instead of chemicals.
• No genetic modification is done to increase the yield of the crop.
• Rice cultivation needs high temperature, high humidity and rainfall.

Question 3: Explain the Agricultural Development and what is the ultimate aim of agricultural development?
Answer:

• Agricultural development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population.
• Increasing the cropped area, the number of crops grown, improving irrigation facilities, use of fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds are the ways to develop agriculture.
• Another aspect of agricultural development is Mechanisation of agriculture.
• The ultimate aim of agricultural development is to increase food security. 

Question 4: What is commercial farming? Name the types of commercial farming.
Answer:
Commercial farming is a type of farming where crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market.
The types of commercial farming:
• Commercial grain farming
• Mixed farming
• Plantation farming

Question 5: Give reasons.
i) In India, agriculture is a primary activity.
Answer:
Agriculture is a primary activity because many regions in India have fertile land that is favourable for agriculture. Two-thirds of the Indian population is dependent upon agriculture. India being a densely populated country requires large scale production of food to fulfil the people needs. Hence, in India, agriculture is a primary activity. 

ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.
Answer:
Different crops are grown in different regions because growing the crops depends on factors such as favourable topography of soil, demand of produce, type of climate, amount of rainfall, technology and labour.

Question 6: What are the different kinds of cultivation?
Answer:
Agriculture, Sericulture, Pisciculture, Viticulture and Horticulture are the different kinds of cultivation.
• Agriculture is cultivation on the soil - growing crops and rearing livestock.
• Sericulture is rearing of silk worms to extract silk.
• Pisciculture is breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds.
• Viticulture is cultivation of grapes.
• Horticulture is growing vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use.

Question 7: What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Answer:

• Shifting cultivation is a type of farming activity in which a plot of land is cleared by cutting down trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops are grown. After the land has lost its fertility, it is abandoned. The farmers then move to a new place.
• This type of farming has the following disadvantages.
→ It leads to deforestation.
→ The land used loses its fertility after some time.
→ It also leads to soil erosion.
→ Burning of trees causes air pollution.
→ Crops are cultivated on small plots of land which is insufficient for feeding a large population.

Question 8: What is plantation agriculture and which are the major plantations in the tropical regions of the world?
Answer:

• Plantations are a type of commercial farming where a single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton is grown.
• It requires a large amount of capital and labour.
• The produce can be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories.
• The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming.
• This type of farming can be found in tropical regions of the world like India, Sri Lanka and Brazil. 

Question 9: Distinguish between the following.
i) Primary activities and tertiary activities
Answer:
Difference between primary and tertiary activities:
• Primary activities
→ These activities are related to production and extraction of natural resources.
→ Example: Agriculture, Fishing, Mining
• Tertiary activities
→ These are activities that provide support to the primary and secondary sector.
→ Example: Transport, Communication, Banking, Advertising

ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming
Answer:
Difference between subsistence farming and intensive farming:
• Subsistence farming
→ It is a type of farming that is done by the farmer to meet the needs of his family.
→ It involves the use of low levels of technology and household labour.
• Intensive farming
→ It is a type of farming that is done by the farmer to increase the production of crops in a small plot of land so as to earn some profit.
→ It involves the use of simple tools and extra labour.

Question 10: Find out the difference between the lifestyle of farmers in the USA and India.
Answer:
The lifestyle of an Indian farmer is quite different from that of a farmer in the USA.
• An Indian farmer does not have much land whereas the average size of a farm in the USA is about 250 hectares.
• An Indian farmer lives in his house but an American farmer lives in his farm.
• A farmer in India applies his own experience, and advice of other farmers and elders regarding farming practices. But a farmer in the USA gets his soil tested in laboratories to assess the nutrients of the soil.
• An Indian farmer does not know much of technical advancements whereas a farmer in the USA has a computer which is linked to the satellite.
• In comparison to an Indian farmer, an American farmer is much more advanced in every aspect.

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