Kips Class 8 AI Unit 5: AI Ethics

Unit 5: AI Ethics

Question 1: Define the term AI Ethics.
Answer:
The term 'Al Ethics' is a blanket term that is used to deal with all the ethical concerns and issues related to Al systems. Al Ethics are normally divided into two categories: concerns related to data (Bias and inclusions) used in the Al Systems and the concerns related to implications of the Al technology itself.

Question 2: Explain ethical concerns of AI related to data (Bias, Inclusions Concerns).
Answer:
Artificial Intelligence is already being used to make everyday decisions that have serious implications on the lives of people. Companies are using Al Systems to make recruitment, promotion, and termination decisions and evaluate loan applications. In judiciary, Al systems are being used to help judges, and jury make better and more informed judgments by predicting the chances of re-offenses by criminals. In campuses, Al systems are being used to evaluate the potential of the incoming students for deciding on their future careers. These uses of Al systems are raising serious ethical concerns around the world. Al systems have potential of analysing large amount of data and learning from this data something which human beings are incapable of doing
• Bias in real world data
The problem here is that Al system learns from the real-world data fed into it. This means that Al systems can reinforce the biases found in Al systems. Example: A computer system trained on the data for last 200 years might find that more females were involved in certain jobs or that more percentage of successful businesses were established by men and conclude that specific genders are better equipped for handling certain jobs (gender bias). Understanding or even detecting such biases is not easy because many Al systems act as black boxes.
• Problem of Inclusion
Al systems trained on biased real world data create problem of inclusion, i.e. the problem that some people are left out of Al decision-making system. Example: Al system used by Amazon for recruitment. This created a situation in which many eligible females were left out of consideration. This is known as the problem of inclusion.

Question 3: Explain any four privacy concerns of AI systems.
Answer:
One of the most serious implications of data collection is related to privacy concerns. Take a simple example of Android Smart Phone. The following is a list of some information that Google possesses about you (if you have given it permission).
• Location: Google knows when you leave for school, the route which you take, the time you spend in school, the route you take back, the shops that you like to visit, the park where you go for walk, the restaurant where you eat, etc.
• E-mail: The complete list of all the mails sent and received by you (including the ones you deleted). Every personal and official mail.
• Hangout All of your chat records.
• Photos: All the images of you and your friends along with their names. Linked with contact list Google knows their phone numbers, email-IDs, addresses, etc. Linked with calendar it also knows about important events like their birthdays, marriage anniversaries, birth of their children, etc.

Question 4: Explain ethical concerns related to adaptation of AI Systems.
Answer:
One of the major concerns related to adoption of AI Systems is:
• Job Loss: For a long time now people have been arguing about the number of the jobs that will be lost due to adoption of Al systems and advanced robots. There have been different researches published by different organisations that measure this impact differently.
• Increasing Inequalities: The current economic system provides economic rewards based on contributions to the economy. The Al era will reduce the number of people required for doing jobs. This will also reduce economic remuneration given to them. In this case, most of the economic benefits will go to companies who own systems. This will further widen the already wide income gaps.
• Negative Adoptions: AI, in the hands of terrorists, can be used to spread terror. They can use Al based technologies to make attacks that can do most damage in terms of life and infrastructure losses. Cyber criminals can use Al technology to hack into more systems and for doing more damage. Countries can use this technology to increase war damages inflicted by them.
• Black Box Problem: Black Box problem refers to inherent problems of the Al systems. Sometime what happens in the Al system is normally not easily understood by common individuals and not even by the programmers. This problems stems out of the fact that Al systems do not provide reasoning for decisions made by them.

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