NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 10 - India After Independence

Chapter 10 - India After Independence

Question 1: Name three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced.
Answer:
When India became independent in August 1947, it faced a series of very great challenges -
• Rehabilitation of a large number of refugees: 8 million refugees had come into the country from what was now Pakistan. Homes and jobs had to be found for these people.
• Assimilation of princely states: There were more than 500 princely states, each ruled by a Maharaja or a Nawab, each of whom had to be persuaded to join the new nation.
• Ensuring the unity of a country which was full of diversity: The citizens of India spoke different languages, wore different dresses and practised different faiths .There was also division between high caste and low caste. It was a challenge to make them live together in a one nation state.

Question 2: What was the role of the Planning Commission?
Answer:

• In 1950, the government set up a planning commission to formulate policies which would guide the economic development.
• A broad agreement was reached on “mixed economy” model where both the State and the private sector would play important and complementary roles in increasing production and generating jobs.
• The commission would define which industries should be initiated by the state, which industries by the market and how to achieve a balance between the different regions and states.
• The commission would make 5 year plans.

Question 3: After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines?
Answer:

• India had been divided on the basis of religion: despite the wishes and efforts of Mahatma Gandhi, freedom had come not to one nation but to two.
• As a result of the partition of India, more than ten lakh people had been killed in riots between Hindus and Muslims. The country could not afford further divisions on the basis of language.
• So, both the Prime Minister Nehru and the Deputy Prime Minister Sardar Patel were against the creation of states on the basis of languages.

Question 4: What are 3 lists of subjects that the constitution has provided to balance the different views on power sharing between the centre and the state?
Answer:
The 3 lists of subjects provided by the constitution are:
• A Union List, with subjects such as taxes, defence and foreign affairs, which would be the exclusive responsibility of the Centre.
• A State List of subjects, such as education and health, which would be taken care of principally by the states.
• A Concurrent List, under which would come subjects such as forests and agriculture, in which the Centre and the states would have joint responsibility.

Question 5: What did Dr Ambedkar mean when he said that “In politics, we will have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality”?
Answer:

• According to Dr. Ambedkar, political democracy had to be accompanied by economic and social democracy.
• Giving the right to vote would not automatically lead to the removal of other inequalities such as between rich and poor, or between upper and lower castes.
• He believed that India needed to work towards eradicating all forms of inequality in the economic and social spheres.
• Only then would the equality granted by the Constitution in the sphere of politics (i.e., one vote for every adult Indian citizen) be of any value.
• Otherwise, India would just be a land of contradictions - following the principle of “One man, One vote and One value” in its political life, and denying the principle of “One man, One value” in its economic and social lives.

Question 6: Why English continued to be used in India after Independence?
Answer:

• Some leaders believed that English should be done away with and Hindi should be promoted as the national language.
• However, those who did not speak Hindi were of a different opinion.
• T.T. Krishnamachari conveyed “a warning on behalf of people of the South”, and threatened to separate from India if Hindi was imposed on them.
• Finally, it was decided that while Hindi would be the official language and English would be used in the courts, the services, and interstate communications.

Question 7: How did the state of Andhra came into being?
Answer:

• In October 1952, a veteran Gandhian named Potti Sriramulu went on a hunger strike demanding the formation of Andhra state to protect the interests of Telugu speakers.
• The fast attracted much support and hartals and bandhs were observed in many towns.
• On 15 December 1952, fifty-eight days into his fast, Potti Sriramulu died. The protests after his death were so widespread and intense that the central government was forced to accept the demand and on 1st October 1953, the new state of Andhra came into being.

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