NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 - Mineral and Power Resources Extra Questions

Chapter 3 - Mineral and Power Resources Extra Questions

Multiple Choice Questions:
1. Which of the following is not the nuclear power stations in India?
a) Kalpakkam
b) Tarapur
c) Nagpur
d) Kaiga
Answer:
c) Nagpur

2. Heat energy obtained from the earth is called _______________ energy.
a) geothermal
b) nuclear
c) tidal
d) all of these
Answer:
a) geothermal

3. The first tidal energy station was first built in _____________.
a) Switzerland
b) France
c) Sweden
d) Russia
Answer:
b) France

4. Which of the following is a leading producer of copper in the world?
a) China
b) Chile
c) Peru
d) Sweden
Answer:
b) Chile

5. Which of the following is not the leading producer of coal?
a) China
b) Germany
c) Hungary
d) South Africa
Answer:
c) Hungary

6. Which of the following statement is not true for Hydel Power?
a) Non-polluting
b) Promotes irrigation and fishing
c) Costs less to setup
d) Both a) and b)
Answer:
c) Costs less to setup

7. Which of the following statement is true for Natural Gas?
a) Expensive than oil
b) Polluting source
c) Easy access
d) Cleaner than oil and coal
Answer:
d) Cleaner than oil and coal

8. Australia is the largest producer of _________________.
a) bauxite
b) coal
c) platinum
d) all of these
Answer:
a) bauxite

9. The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface is called _______________.
a) quarrying
b) mining
c) distribution of minerals
d) all of these
Answer:
b) mining

10. Europe is the leading producer of ________________.
a) iron-ore
b) lead
c) tin
d) coal
Answer:
a) iron-ore

11. The mineral deposits in North America are located in three zone. Which of the following is/are the three zones?
a) the Canadian region north of the Great Lakes
b) the Appalachian region
c) mountain ranges of the west
d) All of these
Answer:
d) All of these

Fill in the blanks:
12. A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral.
13. On the basis of composition, minerals are classified mainly as metallic and non-metallic minerals.
14. Metallic minerals may be ferrous or non-ferrous.
15. China and India have large iron ore deposits
16. Conventional sources of energy are those which have been in common use for a long time.
17. Norway was the first country in the world to develop hydroelectricity.

Answer the following:
18. Define minerals.
Answer:
A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral.

19. Write a short note on the process of extraction of minerals.
Answer:

• Minerals can be extracted by mining, drilling or quarrying.
• The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface is called mining.
• Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer; this is known as open-cast mining. Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depths. This is called shaft mining.
• Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling.
• Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug out, by the process known as quarrying

20. What are minerals? Write the minerals that you use everyday. Write the uses of these minerals.
Answer:
A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral.
Few minerals that we use everyday are
• Salt: It is used in food items.
• Graphite: It is used for making pencils.
• Copper: It is used in making jewelleries.
• Aluminium: It is used in making kitchen appliances.
• Petroleum: Petrol and Diesel are obtained from petroleum.

21. Describe the distribution of minerals in Europe.
Answer:

• Europe is the leading producer of iron-ore in the world.
• The countries with large deposits of iron ore are Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and France.
• Minerals deposits of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel are found in eastern Europe and European Russia.

22. Describe the distribution of minerals in Africa and Australia.
Answer:

• Africa
→ Africa is rich in mineral resources. It is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum.
→ South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce a large portion of the world’s gold.
→ The other minerals found in Africa are copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite. Oil is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola.

• Australia
→ Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world.
→ It is a leading producer of gold, diamond, iron ore, tin and nickel.
→ It is also rich in copper, lead, zinc and manganese. Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie areas of western Australia have the largest deposits of gold.

23. Why should we conserve minerals?
Answer:

• Minerals are a non-renewable resource.
• It takes thousands of years for the formation and concentration of minerals.
• The rate of formation is much smaller than the rate at which the humans consume these minerals.
• It is necessary to reduce wastage in the process of mining.
• Recycling of metals is another way in which the mineral resources can be conserved.

24. Write the advantages of Oil and Natural Gas.
Answer:

• Oil
→ Easier to transport.
→ Basis of petro-chemical industry.

• Natural Gas
→ Easier to transport (pipelines).
→ Cleaner than oil.
→ Cheaper than oil.

25. Write a short note on Hydel Power.
Answer:

• Rain water or river water stored in dams is made to fall from heights. The falling water flows through pipes inside the dam over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam. The moving blades then turn the generator to produce electricity. This is called hydro-electricity.
• The water discharged after the generation of electricity is used for irrigation.
• One fourth of the world’s electricity is produced by hydel power.
• The leading producers of hydel power in the world are Paraguay, Norway, Brazil, and China.
• Some important hydel power stations in India are Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunsagar and Damodar valley projects.

26. Write the pros and cons of Wind Energy.
Answer:

• Pros of Wind Energy
→ Non-polluting
→ Low cost production of electricity
→ Safe and clean

• Cons of Wind Energy
→ Noise pollution
→ It is costly to setup
→ Harmful to birds
→ Disturbs radio and T.V. reception

27. Write a short note on Nuclear Power.
Answer:

• Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radio-active elements like uranium and thorium. These fuels undergo nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and emit power.
• The greatest producers of nuclear power are USA and Europe.
• In India, Rajasthan and Jharkhand have large deposits of Uranium.
• Thorium is found in large quantities in the Monozite sands of Kerala.
• The nuclear power stations in India are located in Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu, Tarapur in Maharastra, Ranapratap Sagar near Kota in Rajasthan, Narora in Uttar Pradesh and Kaiga in Karnataka.

28. What is Biogas?
Answer:

• Organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas.
• The organic waste is decomposed by bacteria in biogas digesters to emit biogas which is essentially a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide.
• Biogas is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting and produces huge amount of organic manure each year.

29. Differentiate between
a) Solar Energy and Wind Energy
b) Nuclear Energy and Geothermal Energy
Answer:

a)
• Solar Energy
→ Inexhaustible
→ Non-polluting
→ Expensive
→ Diffuse source, so gets waste
• Wind Energy
→ Low cost production of electricity
→ Safe and clean
→ Noise pollution
→ Harmful to birds

b)
• Nuclear Energy
→ Emits large amount of energy
→ Generates radioactive wastes
→ Expensive
• Geothermal Energy
→ Clean eco-friendly and always available
→ Located far away from cities and so costly to transport the electricity

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